IPTC Media Topic NewsCodes as of 2024-06-04 (language: en-GB)

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MediaTopic ID Name (en-GB) Definition (en-GB)
medtop:01000000 arts, culture, entertainment and media All forms of arts, entertainment, cultural heritage and media
medtop:20000002 arts and entertainment All forms of arts and entertainment
medtop:20000003 animation Stories told through animated drawings in either full-length or short format
medtop:20000004 cartoon Drawings, such as editorial cartoons and comic strips, often using humour or satire
medtop:20000005 cinema Stories told through motion pictures, such as full-length or short format documentary or fictional features
medtop:20000007 dance A form of performing art consisting of purposefully selected sequences of human movement
medtop:20000008 ballet A classical dance form based on formal gestures, steps and postures
medtop:20000009 modern dance A theatrical dance style based on free-style expression rather than formal gestures
medtop:20000010 traditional dance Dance style that reflects the life and culture of a specific group of people or region, such as folk and ceremonial dance
medtop:20000011 fashion Styles and trends in clothing, footwear, accessories, including the design, presentation and wearing of these styles and trends
medtop:20001248 cosmetics Products applied to the body to enhance appearance, such as lipstick, eyeliner, foundation and nail polish, and the trends surrounding the application of these products
medtop:20001249 hairstyles Trends surrounding the cutting and styling of hair
medtop:20000012 jewellery Decorative items worn for personal expression and adornment, such as rings, necklaces, earrings
medtop:20001181 festival Events showcasing artistic endeavours, often regularly occurring, such as dance, music, theatre, poetry or comedy festivals
medtop:20000006 film festival All forms of national and international film festivals
medtop:20000013 literature The telling of a story through written language
medtop:20000014 drama (literature) Work written to be performed on the stage
medtop:20000015 fiction Written works that are not based on fact, but are the creation of the author's imagination
medtop:20000016 non-fiction Written works that are based on fact
medtop:20000017 poetry Written works that use the aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language to express a message or emotion
medtop:20000018 music A form of performing art using instruments or voice to create different sounds, tones and harmonies
medtop:20000021 musical genre A distinguishable type of music
medtop:20001189 children's music A genre of music featuring songs composed and performed for children
medtop:20000022 classical music A genre of music rooted in the traditions of Western music, including both religious and secular music, such as symphony, concerto and sonata.
medtop:20000023 country music A genre of music that originated in the southern United States, often consisting of ballads or dance tunes and featuring string instruments such as banjos, fiddles and guitars
medtop:20001187 dance band music A Swedish genre of music characterized by music inspired by swing, schlager, country, jazz and rock that is often danced to in pairs
medtop:20001188 electronic dance music A genre of music that employs electronic instruments and is primarily made for nightclubs, raves, and festivals
medtop:20000024 folk music A genre of music that developed from traditional popular cultures, often based on story telling
medtop:20001186 heavy metal A genre of loud, aggressive rock music that was developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s
medtop:20001184 hip hop A genre of music developed in African American communities in the United States in the 1970s which consists of rapping usually with an electronic backing
medtop:20000025 jazz music A genre of music with roots in blues and ragtime that originated in African American communities of New Orleans in the United States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries
medtop:20000026 popular music A genre of music that is widely accessible and designed to appeal to all
medtop:20001185 r&b A genre of music originated in African American communities in the 1940s and featuring soulful vocals
medtop:20000027 rock and roll music A genre of music that originated in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950s, evolving from African American musical styles such as gospel, jump blues, jazz, boogie woogie, and rhythm and blues.
medtop:20000019 musical instrument Objects used to play music on
medtop:20000020 musical performance Musicians performing for an audience for the purpose of entertainment
medtop:20001179 series A connected set of fictional or non-fictional program episodes that run under the same title.
medtop:20000029 theatre A form of performing art where live performers portray a narrative to an audience through dialogue and action
medtop:20001191 cabaret A form of theatrical entertainment featuring music, song, dance, recitation, or drama that is performed in a nightclub or restaurant while the audience eats or drinks at tables
medtop:20001180 drama (theatre) A genre of theatre where dramatic or comedic plays are performed on the stage
medtop:20000030 (retired) music theatre (retired) A form of performing art where live performers portray a narrative to an audience through song, dialogue and action, such as musicals and operettas (retired)
medtop:20001133 musical A genre of music theatre in which singing and dancing play an essential part of the storytelling
medtop:20000028 opera A form of performing art where classically trained musicians and singers perform a musical and dramatic work
medtop:20001134 operetta A genre of music theatre that usually has a light or humorous theme where some of the libretto is usually spoken rather than sung.
medtop:20001190 stand-up comedy A comic style in which a comedian performs a series of jokes or stories in front of a live audience, usually speaking directly to them
medtop:20000031 visual arts A form of art which appeals primarily to the visual senses, such as ceramics, drawing, painting, sculpture, printmaking, design, crafts, photography, video, filmmaking, and architecture.
medtop:20000032 architecture The design of buildings, monuments and the spaces around them
medtop:20000033 design (visual arts) An artistic discipline which focuses on visual communication and presentation, the final product of which can range from jewellery to interior design
medtop:20000034 drawing A form of visual arts using mediums such as pencils, markers, pen and ink, charcoal
medtop:20001205 forging The shaping of metal using localized compressive forces, such as heating and hammering
medtop:20000035 painting A form of visual arts using mediums such as oil paint, watercolour, pastel, crayon
medtop:20000036 photography A form of visual arts using photographic images
medtop:20000037 sculpture A form of visual arts using mediums such as clay, stone, wood and metal to create three-dimensional works
medtop:20001203 textile arts Arts and crafts that use plant, animal, or synthetic fibres to construct practical or decorative object
medtop:20001204 woodworking The activity or skill of making items, such as furniture or cabinets, from wood
medtop:20000038 culture The ideas, customs, arts, traditions of a particular group of persons
medtop:20001135 art exhibition Temporary presentation of art in museums, art halls or galleries
medtop:20000039 cultural development The history of the development of art and culture such as the rise of cave paintings, linguistic variations over time, the evolution of values
medtop:20000040 customs and tradition A particular way of behaving, or observances that have developed over time by a group of people
medtop:20000041 festive event (culture) An event ordinarily celebrated by a community and centring on some characteristic aspect of that community and its religion or traditions
medtop:20000042 language The method of human communication, either spoken or written, consisting of words that are used in a structured and conventional way
medtop:20000043 library and museum Institutions that house collections of books, music, art, or objects from the past and present optionally for public use and display
medtop:20000044 monument and heritage site Commemorations of historical people, events, or the areas containing them, in the form of structures such as sculptures, statues or buildings
medtop:20000242 restoration Restoring historic or important properties or structures to a former better state by cleaning, repairing or rebuilding
medtop:20000045 mass media Media addressing a large audience
medtop:20001319 disinformation and misinformation The spread of false information regardless of intent
medtop:20000046 news media The presentation of news to the public through different platforms, such as TV, radio, newspapers, magazines, web pages and blogs
medtop:20000047 newspaper Daily or weekly publication that presents the news, locally, regionally or globally, as well as features, opinion columns, comics and other content
medtop:20000048 online media outlet Publication distributing content, such as articles, blogs, photos, video and music, only over the internet
medtop:20000049 periodical Publication that is usually published weekly, bi-weekly, monthly or annually, such as magazines, journals or newsletters
medtop:20000050 radio Audio content, such as news, entertainment or information, distributed via broadcast or internet
medtop:20001182 social media Content created to be shared within online social networks
medtop:20001192 influencers Persons who distribute content on internet forums and social media and are followed by many people thereby influencing them to buy and use products
medtop:20000051 television Video content, such as news, entertainment or information, distributed via broadcast or internet
medtop:16000000 conflict, war and peace Acts of socially or politically motivated protest or violence, military activities, geopolitical conflicts, as well as resolution efforts
medtop:20000053 act of terror Act of violence, often resulting in casualties, designed to raise fear and anxiety in a population
medtop:20000054 act of bioterrorism Attacks using biological agents intended to raise the level of fear within a population
medtop:20000055 terrorist bombings Intentional use of explosive devices on people, buildings or other structures
medtop:20000056 armed conflict Disputes between opposing groups involving the use of weapons, but not necessarily formally declared wars
medtop:20000057 guerrilla activity Anti-government or wartime actions by clandestine or non-state combatant groups, often using tactics such as ambush, sabotage, raids and kidnapping
medtop:20000058 international military intervention The temporary use of international forces in a country or region that requires outside help with resolving a crisis
medtop:20000060 military occupation The temporary forceful taking over of a country or region by invading military forces
medtop:20000061 missing in action Civilians or military personnel who have gone missing during or after hostilities, conflicts or war
medtop:20000062 war Armed hostilities by one group or geopolitical entity against another
medtop:20000063 civil war Armed conflict between members of the same country, in some cases with the goal of dividing the country
medtop:20000064 (retired) war crime action (retired) Actions alleged as crimes committed during a war or armed conflict, usually against civilians or POWs (retired)
medtop:20000065 civil unrest Rallies, strikes, demonstrations, riots or other disturbances by a population, often in protest to a government or other organization's policies or actions
medtop:20000066 demonstration A non-violent public show of support for or opposition to a cause, idea or policy, in the form of a mass meeting or march
medtop:20000067 rebellion Organized actions of opposition to a government or ruling party by a country's residents, often violent and with the aim of overthrowing the government
medtop:20000068 revolution A forcible and often violent change to, or overthrow of, a country's political system or social order by internal forces, in favour of a new system
medtop:20000069 riot Violent, destructive events of civil disorder by groups of people, usually in response to a grievance or as acts of opposition, often involving injury to individuals and destruction of property
medtop:20000070 coup d'etat The overthrow of an established government by an organised military or political group
medtop:20001361 cyber warfare Cyber attacks, or suspected attacks, involving a government entity as either the sponsor or the target, or preventive measures against these types of actions
medtop:20000071 massacre The mass killing of people, usually civilians, during wartime hostilities
medtop:20000073 peace process Organized actions to end a war or conflict, usually involving peace negotiations and agreements
medtop:20000078 disarmament The abolishment or reduction of a country's military weapons cache
medtop:20000074 peace envoy Person or organisation initiating and carrying out a peace process
medtop:20000075 peace plan A strategy for achieving peace in a warring nation or area of conflict
medtop:20000076 peace talks Discussions between countries, world regions or geopolitical entities in conflict or at war, often with a mediator, with the goal of arriving at a solution for peace
medtop:20000059 peacekeeping force The military forces of a nation, or of several nations working together, whose mission is to maintain peace in areas of conflict
medtop:20000077 post-war reconstruction Actions to rebuild a society, economy or political system in an area affected by war
medtop:20000079 ordnance clearance The removal or neutralisation of ordnance such as landmines or cluster bombs that may remain after a war or armed conflict on public ground
medtop:20001377 war victims Individuals who are injured or killed in a war or armed conflict, including civilians
medtop:20001378 missing in action A member of the armed forces who cannot be located and has not been confirmed as either alive or dead
medtop:20000080 prisoners of war Individuals captured, imprisoned or detained by enemy factions during military conflicts or war
medtop:02000000 crime, law and justice The establishment and/or statement of the rules of behaviour in society, the enforcement of these rules, breaches of the rules, the punishment of offenders and the organisations and bodies involved in these activities
medtop:20000082 crime Violations of laws by individuals, companies or organisations
medtop:20001314 animal abuse The infliction of cruelty or neglect onto animals by humans
medtop:20000083 arson The intentional setting of fires with criminal intent
medtop:20000084 assault Physical crime against a person, including battery, brawls and threat of bodily harm
medtop:20000085 sex crime Sexual crimes against a person, such as rape, harassment, molestation or groping
medtop:20000087 corporate crime Crimes committed by a corporation or by individuals acting on behalf of a corporation
medtop:20001194 accounting crime The intentional misrepresentation or alteration of accounting records regarding sales, revenues, expenses and other factors
medtop:20000088 anti-trust crime Violations of laws aimed at corporations to promote fair competition for the benefit of consumers
medtop:20000089 breach of contract The breaking of terms set in a contractual agreement
medtop:20000090 embezzlement The intentional theft or misuse of money left in one's care or belonging to one's employer
medtop:20000091 insider trading Trading of stocks by persons having access to internal information not made public at the time
medtop:20000092 restraint of trade Interference in free competition in business and trade
medtop:20000093 corruption Dishonest actions by a person in power in return for pecuniary or personal gain
medtop:20000094 bribery The giving of money or favours in order to influence the judgment or conduct of a person in a position of power
medtop:20000086 cyber crime Criminal activities carried out by means of computers or the internet, such as hacking, phishing scams and identity theft
medtop:20000095 drug related crimes Illegal activities involving illicit substances, including buying, distribution, selling and smuggling
medtop:20000096 drug trafficking Dealing in illicit often harmful substances
medtop:20000097 fraud Intentional deception for personal or financial gain
medtop:20001195 tax evasion The illegal evasion of taxes by individuals, corporations, and trusts
medtop:20000072 genocide The systematic killing of one clan, tribe, or religious or ethnic group by another
medtop:20000098 hijacking Taking over a transportation vehicle by force
medtop:20000099 homicide The killing of one person by another, including murder and manslaughter
medtop:20001283 human smuggling and trafficking The illegal transporting of people from one country or area to another. When the result is forced labour or sexual exploitation, the crime is considered trafficking.
medtop:20000100 kidnapping To seize and detain a person against that person's will by unlawful threat, force or fraud
medtop:20000101 organised crime Crimes committed by gangs or criminal organizations, such as the mafia
medtop:20000102 gang activity Criminal activities by groups of individuals, who are allied by common territories, languages or ethnic backgrounds and identify by a common group identity by using a shared name, tattoo, hand sign, clothing style or graffiti symbol
medtop:20001196 reckless driving Serious traffic violations that are likely to, or have led to, the endangerment, injury or death of a person or persons, or the endangerment of or significant property damage
medtop:20000104 robbery and theft The taking of another person's property without their consent, sometimes by force
medtop:20001313 shootings An act of violence committed by individuals with the use of armed weapons
medtop:20000103 terrorism Violence against people to create fear in order to achieve political or ideological objectives
medtop:20001320 torture Intentionally inflicting severe physical or psychological pain in order to punish the victim or get the victim to take an action or give information
medtop:20001285 vandalism Deliberately damaging or destroying public or private property
medtop:20000105 war crime Crimes committed during a war or armed conflict, usually against civilians or prisoners of war, including the prosecution of such crimes
medtop:20000106 judiciary The system of courts of law
medtop:20000107 court Place where legal cases are heard and decided
medtop:20000108 appeal (court) Process in which parties request a formal change to an official decision
medtop:20000109 (retired) court administration (retired) Court clerks, bailiffs, stenographers etc. (retired)
medtop:20000110 judge Official who decides cases in a court of law and passes sentences on those found guilty
medtop:20001287 supreme and high court matters related to supreme or high courts, including nominations and rulings
medtop:20000111 trial (court) The process by which evidence is presented and guilt, innocence or culpability is determined
medtop:20000113 (retired) defendant (retired) The person on trial (retired)
medtop:20000114 litigation Taking disputed issues to court for settlement by judge and/or jury
medtop:20000112 pre-trial Actions that happen before the start of a trial, such as pleas, bail motions, discovery and depositions
medtop:20000134 sentencing (criminal) The retribution handed out to those who break laws
medtop:20000135 capital punishment The legally authorised execution of someone as punishment for a crime
medtop:20001198 court-ordered psychiatric treatment Psychiatric treatment imposed upon persons with mental health conditions in prisons and jails or as a condition of probation, supervision or parole
medtop:20000136 fine (penalty) Money that a court of law or other authority decides has to be paid as punishment for a crime or other offence
medtop:20000137 prison Facility where people are held as a punishment for a crime they have committed or while awaiting trial
medtop:20001199 suspended sentence Legal arrangement where a judge delays the serving of a sentence by a person who has been found guilty of a crime in order to give them a probationary period
medtop:20000115 (retired) witness (retired) A person who testifies (retired)
medtop:20000116 out of court procedures Legal issues which are settled outside of court
medtop:20000117 arbitration and mediation Resolution of disputed issues by a neutral panel, including conciliation, negotiation and tribunals
medtop:20000118 prosecution and prosecutors The process of holding a trial against a person who is accused of a crime to determine guilt and the lawyers and legal team who argue that the accused is guilty
medtop:20000119 (retired) justice (retired) The equitable administration of laws and regulations (retired)
medtop:20000121 law The codification of rules of behaviour
medtop:20001197 administrative law Body of law that governs the actions of governmental administrative agencies
medtop:20000122 civil law The system of law focused on private rights and disputes between individuals in such areas as contracts, torts, property, and family law
medtop:20000124 regulations laws that guide the conduct and organization of business corporations
medtop:20000123 antitrust regulations laws to promote competition between companies for the benefit of consumers
medtop:20000125 criminal law The system of law concerned with the punishment of those who commit crimes
medtop:20000126 international law The system of laws embraced by all nations, such as the Geneva Convention and the International Law of the Seas
medtop:20000127 extradition Legal transfer of criminals or suspects between countries
medtop:20000128 international court and tribunal The activities of courts under the authority of international organizations or formed by treaties between nations, such as the European Court for Human Rights and International Court of Justice
medtop:20000129 law enforcement Agencies that attempt to prevent disobedience to established laws or bring to justice those who disobey those laws
medtop:20000130 arrest The detention of a suspect of a crime
medtop:20000131 investigation (criminal) Inquiry into an alleged crime, including searching, interviews, interrogations and evidence collection
medtop:20001200 dropped criminal investigation When police and/or prosecutors end an investigation without a conclusion
medtop:20000132 missing person An adult whose disappearance is possibly not voluntary, or a child whose whereabouts are unknown to the child's legal guardian
medtop:20000133 police Civil force of a national, regional or local government that is responsible for the prevention and detection of crime and the maintenance of public order
medtop:20001299 surveillance Monitoring the activities of the individual through the use of cameras and data in order to prevent or uncover criminal activities
medtop:03000000 disaster, accident and emergency incident Man made or natural event resulting in loss of life or injury to living creatures and/or damage to inanimate objects or property
medtop:20000139 accident and emergency incident A sudden, unexpected event that causes unwanted consequences or requires immediate action
medtop:20001321 drowning When a person's airpipe and lungs become filled with water causing death or injury, most often caused by falling into or bathing in rivers, lakes or the ocean
medtop:20000140 explosion accident and incident Explosions caused by an accidental, non-combat, or non-terrorism source. Also use when the source of the explosion is non-specified or unknown
medtop:20000141 industrial accident and incident Any unplanned event or mishap in an industrial setting that result in injuries to people and damage to property or the environment
medtop:20000142 nuclear accident and incident Any unplanned event that causes unwanted consequences involving radioactive materials
medtop:20000161 structural failure The unexpected collapse of a building, bridge or other structure
medtop:20000143 transportation accident and incident An accident or incident involving one or more vehicles
medtop:20000144 air and space accident and incident An accident or incident involving aircrafts or spacecrafts
medtop:20000145 maritime accident and incident An accident or incident involving marine vessels.
medtop:20000146 railway accident and incident An accident or incident involving trains.
medtop:20000147 road accident and incident An accident or incident involving road vehicles.
medtop:20001201 wildlife traffic accident Traffic accidents involving wild animals
medtop:20000148 disaster A sudden, unplanned event that causes great damage or loss of life, such as an accident or a natural catastrophe
medtop:20000149 famine Severe lack of food for a large population
medtop:20000150 fire Fires started by an accidental or unknown source. For wildfires, use wildfire. For fires started with a criminal intent, use arson.
medtop:20001202 wildfire An uncontrolled fire in an area of combustible vegetation
medtop:20000151 natural disaster Destructive incidents caused by nature, such as earthquakes and floods
medtop:20000152 drought A severe lack of water over a period of time
medtop:20000153 earthquake The shifting of the tectonic plates of the Earth, creating in some cases damage to structures
medtop:20000154 flood Surfeit of water, caused by heavy rains or melting snow, usually in places where it's not wanted
medtop:20000155 landslide Sudden dislodging of massive amounts of snow or soil
medtop:20000156 avalanche A sudden fall of snow, ice, rock, or mud down the side of a mountain
medtop:20000157 meteorological disaster A weather-related disaster
medtop:20001280 hurricane A type of storm also called a tropical cyclone, which forms over tropical or subtropical waters
medtop:20000158 windstorms A storm with very strong wind but little or no rain or snow
medtop:20001353 tsunami High and powerful ocean waves caused by an underwater land disturbance, such as an earthquake or volcanic eruption, known to cause significant damage and loss when they hit land
medtop:20000159 volcanic eruption A rupture in the crust of the Earth allowing molten material to escape to the surface
medtop:20000160 (retired) emergency incident (retired) A sudden, unexpected event that requires immediate action to prevent serious consequences (retired)
medtop:20000162 (retired) transport incident (retired) An incident involving one or more vehicles (retired)
medtop:20000163 (retired) air and space incident (retired) Incident involving craft in air or space. (retired)
medtop:20000164 (retired) maritime incident (retired) Incident involving marine vessels. (retired)
medtop:20000165 (retired) railway incident (retired) Incident involving trains. (retired)
medtop:20000166 (retired) road incident (retired) Incident involving road vehicles. (retired)
medtop:20000167 (retired) emergency planning (retired) Planning for actions to deal with sudden, unplanned events (retired)
medtop:20000168 emergency response The planning and efforts made by people and organizations to help victims of a sudden, unplanned event, natural disaster or crisis
medtop:04000000 economy, business and finance All matters concerning the planning, production and exchange of wealth.
medtop:20000349 business enterprise Organisations set up to create and sell a product or service
medtop:20001278 cooperative An organisation which is owned and run jointly by its members, who share the profits or benefits of their work
medtop:20001172 small and medium enterprise A small and medium enterprise (SME) is a company whose number of employees, balance and turnover cannot exceed certain limits set by the country where it is located
medtop:20001158 start-up and entrepreneurial business The process of designing, launching and running a new business
medtop:20000170 business information Information about individual business entities, including companies, corporations, charities
medtop:20000171 (retired) business finance (retired) A business entity's finances (retired)
medtop:20000173 (retired) analysts comment (retired) Stock analyst comments, analysis and recommendations. (retired)
medtop:20000183 business financing The financing, capital structuring, and investment decisions of a business
medtop:20000174 bankruptcy Organisations that cannot pay their debts and file for special treatment by governments and financial systems
medtop:20001376 corporate bond Corporate paper representing the loan of money at a fixed rate and for a fixed time to that company or government
medtop:20001294 crowdfunding The funding of a project or venture by raising small amounts of money from a large number of people, typically via the internet
medtop:20000182 financially distressed company Indications that a company is financially distressed but not having filed for bankruptcy yet
medtop:20000184 (retired) restructuring and recapitalisation (retired) The sale of company units, splits of existing companies into units under a holding company, etc. (retired)
medtop:20000394 (retired) securities (retired) Markets for trading types of company paper such as stocks and bonds (retired)
medtop:20000191 (retired) stock option (retired) An agreement to either buy or sell a stock when it meets a certain price, sometimes used as an incentive for employees and officers of a company (retired)
medtop:20000396 stocks and securities Financial insturments such as company shares and bonds
medtop:20000177 corporate dividends Distribution of company profits to shareholders via dividend payments
medtop:20000395 derivatives Financial instruments such as futures, swaps and options that depend on an underlying instrument such as a commodity, bond, equity or currency
medtop:20001141 (retired) hot stock (retired) Remarkable price movements of a particular stock. (retired)
medtop:20000186 stock activity Announcements of major stock events: splits, block trades, new highs or lows, etc.
medtop:20000175 stock buyback Corporate actions in which companies buy back their own shares
medtop:20000187 stock flotation The issuing of stock shares to the public for the first time, also called an Initial Public Offering (IPO)
medtop:20001137 (retired) stock recommendation (retired) An analyst's recommendation for particular stocks. May include the analyst s price target for the stock. (retired)
medtop:20001138 (retired) buy recommendation (retired) An analyst's recommendation to buy particular stocks. May include the analyst s price target for the stock. (retired)
medtop:20001139 (retired) hold recommendation (retired) An analyst's recommendation to hold particular stocks. May include the analyst s price target for the stock. (retired)
medtop:20001140 (retired) sell recommendation (retired) An analyst's recommendation to sell particular stocks. May include the analyst s price target for the stock. (retired)
medtop:20000199 business governance The rules, practices, and processes used to oversee and manage a company
medtop:20000193 annual and special corporate meeting News surrounding company reports and annual or special corporate meetings
medtop:20000194 annual report Availability or contents of annual company reports.
medtop:20000195 board of directors Appointments to or changes in the board of directors for a company.
medtop:20001230 environmental, social and governance policy (ESG) A company's business practices reflecting responsible social, ethical and environmental policies, sometimes known as corporate social responsibility
medtop:20000181 proxy filing Filings with regulatory agencies of proxy statements for upcoming shareholder votes.
medtop:20000185 shareholder activity Actions taken by owners of one or more shares of a company, including shareholder activism
medtop:20001365 business reporting and performance Measuring and reporting on the performance of a business
medtop:20000172 (retired) accounting and audit (retired) Changes regarding applicable accounting rules and the audit of accounting (retired)
medtop:20000178 corporate earnings Announcements and discussions of corporate earnings
medtop:20000176 credit rating Formal statements by certain rating agencies on the investment risk of a company or enterprise
medtop:20000179 (retired) earnings forecast (retired) Analyst prediction of company earnings. (retired)
medtop:20000180 financial statement Formal statements about the company financials typically delivered annually or quarterly
medtop:20001366 business restructuring Changes to the structure of a business or organisation
medtop:20000197 company spin-off The creation of new companies being spun off from existing companies
medtop:20000200 joint venture Two or more companies agreeing on a venture.
medtop:20000201 leveraged buyout Acquiring control over a company by buying its shares with borrowed money.
medtop:20000203 management buyout Acquiring control over a company by the management buying its shares.
medtop:20000204 merger or acquisition Two or more companies forming a new company mergers, takeovers or acquisitions.
medtop:20000192 business strategy and marketing Planning the direction of a company and selling its products and services to achieve the strategy
medtop:20001163 client relationship management Creating and maintaining a relationship with the customers to increase sales.
medtop:20000196 commercial contract Contracts regarding commercial activities
medtop:20000198 economic globalisation Doing business around the world
medtop:20000202 (retired) licensing agreement (retired) The document defining the terms for licensing intellectual property (retired)
medtop:20000283 market research Gathering information about the needs and wants of consumers
medtop:20000284 market trend Statistically significant consumer behaviour.
medtop:20000205 new product or service The introduction of products or services to the market
medtop:20001295 outsourcing Business practice in which services or job functions are farmed out to a third party
medtop:20000206 patent, copyright and trademark Intellectual properties such as patents, copyright and trademarks
medtop:20000207 product recall A decision by a company to take back or repair a defective product
medtop:20001159 public contract Written contracts between companies and public authorities for the execution of works, the supply of products or the provision of services.
medtop:20000208 research and development Research and expenditure on new product or service development
medtop:20000188 human resources People working for a business and how they are managed
medtop:20000190 executive officer Company executive officers including appointments and changes
medtop:20000189 layoffs and downsizing Planned or actual reductions in the labour force.
medtop:20000344 economy Production, consumption, distribution and trade activities affecting regions or countries as a whole
medtop:20000350 central bank A country's major bank that sets interest rates and provides transfer of funds between commercial banks
medtop:20000355 currency The system of money used by a country, including the value of one currency as measured against another
medtop:20001279 cryptocurrency An internet-based medium of exchange using cryptography to conduct financial transactions
medtop:20000363 economic organisation Business, industrial and trade associations, societies and other private-sector groups
medtop:20000346 economic trends and indicators The behavior and performance of the economy as a whole
medtop:20000347 (retired) bonds (retired) Corporate or governmental paper representing the loan of money at a fixed rate and for a fixed time to that company or government (retired)
medtop:20000348 (retired) budgets and budgeting (retired) A method of balancing revenues against expenses (retired)
medtop:20000352 consumer confidence A measure of consumers' feelings about current and future economic conditions, including prices, inflation and the quality of retail goods, used as an indicator of the overall state of the economy
medtop:20000351 (retired) consumers (retired) Buyers of goods and services (retired)
medtop:20000353 (retired) consumer issue (retired) Issues, such as prices, inflation/deflation, quality of goods, at the retail sales level (retired)
medtop:20000354 (retired) credit and debt (retired) Credit: the amount of money available to you, often by loan. Debt: the amount you owe. (retired)
medtop:20000356 deflation The decrease in the general price level of goods and services within an economy
medtop:20000357 economic growth An increase of the gross domestic product (GDP)
medtop:20000358 (retired) economic indicator (retired) Certain indexes, such as company inventories, the movement of prices that show whether the economy is improving or declining (retired)
medtop:20000365 employment statistics Trends and statistics about areas such as job growth, unemployment and wage growth
medtop:20000366 exporting The producing of manufacturing of goods by a country to be sold elsewhere
medtop:20000367 (retired) government aid (retired) Supply of financial and other help by one government, usually to another (retired)
medtop:20000368 government debt Debt incurred when a country borrows funds to pay for public services and projects that it cannot afford based on the amount of taxes it has raised
medtop:20000359 gross domestic product A measure of a region's economic performance, commonly abbreviated as GDP
medtop:20000369 importing A country bringing in goods that were produced or manufactured elsewhere
medtop:20000360 industrial production Manufacture of durable and non-durable goods
medtop:20000370 inflation The overall increase in prices and cost of living throughout an economy
medtop:20000361 inventories Goods not sold and held by the producer, wholesaler or retailer
medtop:20000378 (retired) investments (retired) Speculative purchases of corporate instruments, of commodities, currencies, or parts thereof (retired)
medtop:20000380 mortgages Trends around loans taken out to buy homes, such as the interest rates of mortgages, the amount of people buying property with a mortgage and the ease of getting approved for a mortgage
medtop:20000382 (retired) prices (retired) The monetary value of goods, services or stocks and bonds (retired)
medtop:20000362 productivity A measure of output from production or service
medtop:20000383 recession A decrease in gross domestic product over a period of two quarters in a row
medtop:20000364 emerging market Economies of developing nations that are growing and becoming more engaged with global markets
medtop:20000372 international economic institution Global institutions working in the domain of international economic cooperation and stability, such ast the International Monetary Fund, UNIDO, World Bank and World Trade Organization
medtop:20000373 international trade Trade of goods and services between nations
medtop:20000375 balance of trade The difference between the financial value of imports and exports
medtop:20000384 tariff Fees placed on imported or exported goods
medtop:20000374 trade agreements Agreements between countries or trading blocs for the sale and purchase of goods and services
medtop:20000376 trade dispute International dispute over issues such as trade barriers, cartels and dumping, resolved by the World Trade Organization
medtop:20000377 trade policy Governmental decisions on tariffs, shipping, embargoes, and the types of goods and services to be imported and exported
medtop:20000379 monetary policy Government bank directed policy on the amount of money in circulation and the rate at which it can be loaned
medtop:20000371 interest rates The amount a lender charges a borrower as a percentage of the principal. Often set by a central bank or government.
medtop:20000381 mutual funds Pools of shares or bonds for sale often grouped by investment intention, such as growth, income or security
medtop:20001171 sharing economy Peer-to-peer-based sharing of access to goods and services
medtop:20000385 market and exchange Market for buying and selling stocks, currencies, commodities and other goods
medtop:20000386 commodities market The market for goods such as cotton, oil, coal and metals
medtop:20000387 energy market The market for commodities such as electricity, heat, and fuel products
medtop:20000388 metal Markets for trading base metals such as copper, aluminium, steel, zinc etc
medtop:20000389 (retired) soft commodities market (retired) Market for commodities such as cotton, sugar, sorghum, soybeans (retired)
medtop:20000390 debt market Market for debt instruments such as bonds, certificates of deposit, banker's acceptances and Treasury bills
medtop:20000391 foreign exchange market The market for international currency
medtop:20000392 loan market The market where financial organisations provide loans to borrowers and sell them on to investors
medtop:20000209 products and services Products and services consumed by companies and individuals and the companies that manufacture or manage them
medtop:20000210 agriculture The growing and raising of plants and animals for consumption and the processing, cleaning, packing or storage of these products
medtop:20000211 (retired) aquaculture (retired) Growing plants or animals in water for human consumption (retired)
medtop:20000212 (retired) arable farming (retired) The growing of plants on a large scale commercially, especially a cereal, fruit, grain or vegetable (retired)
medtop:20000215 (retired) livestock farming (retired) Raising of animals for their by-products, such as meat, eggs, milk, fur and wool (retired)
medtop:20000216 (retired) viniculture (retired) Production of wines from the vines to the finished products (retired)
medtop:20001371 business service Services provided to business operations and for individuals, such as consulting, legal representation and job placement
medtop:20000275 consultancy Providers of expert knowledge in a wide range of fields usually on a temporary, contract basis
medtop:20000276 employment agency A service helping people find jobs, and companies to find workers
medtop:20000281 (retired) janitorial service (retired) Companies that provide cleaning and similar services for homes and businesses. (retired)
medtop:20000282 legal service Lawyers, notaries and others who help companies and individuals deal with state, federal and local laws
medtop:20001164 payment service Services for executing payments including cash, cheque, credit card, debit card, direct debit, electronic funds transfer, internet banking, electronic and mobile payment.
medtop:20000288 (retired) personal service (retired) Consumer service that is intangible e.g. beauty care such as hairdressing (retired)
medtop:20000290 rental service Companies that provide items on a short-term rental basis, including motor vehicles, clothing, tools, heavy equipment and other supplies
medtop:20000291 shipping and postal service Organisations that prepare and transport packages and documents for individuals or companies by any means, including postal services
medtop:20001136 trade show or expo Market place to display and trade goods or services
medtop:20000293 (retired) wedding service (retired) Services and products related to the wedding industry (retired)
medtop:20000217 chemicals Natural or manmade materials used to produce other materials
medtop:20000219 (retired) fertiliser (retired) Natural or manmade materials used to encourage the growth of plants (retired)
medtop:20000220 (retired) health and beauty product (retired) Compilation of chemicals and other substances for use in enhancing ones looks or smell (retired)
medtop:20000221 (retired) inorganic chemical (retired) The branch of chemistry dealing with minerals and metals (retired)
medtop:20000222 (retired) organic chemical (retired) The branch of chemistry dealing with human, animal or carbon-based substances (retired)
medtop:20000213 commercial fishing Fish farming and commercial activity around the catching of fish and seafood for consumption
medtop:20000225 computing and information technology Computers and the transmission of information
medtop:20001161 (retired) Internet of Things (retired) A network of devices using microchips, electronic sensors and communication by the Internet (retired)
medtop:20000226 computer and telecommunications hardware Physical devices used to provide computer and telecommunication service, such as modems, keyboards, hard drives, telephones, routers and monitors
medtop:20000227 (retired) computer networking (retired) The interconnectivity between hardware that provides the medium for the transmission of data. (retired)
medtop:20000229 (retired) computer security (retired) To encompass technical developments in hardware and software, basic research and related areas such as cyber security (retired)
medtop:20000228 satellite technology Hardware and software that enables ground-based devices to send signals to each other via an orbiting satellite.
medtop:20000230 semiconductor and electronic component The basic components that together create working electronic devices such as computer chips, transistors, diodes and integrated circuits
medtop:20000231 software and applications Computer programs including mobile or web apps and operating systems
medtop:20000232 (retired) telecommunication equipment (retired) Devices such as telephone sets, voice/data switches, modems etc that facilitate point-to-point voice/data transmissions (retired)
medtop:20000233 telecommunication service Services provided by commercial companies that facilitate connections between telephones and computers
medtop:20000234 wireless technology Technology and services that permit the transfer of information between separated points without physical connection, including bluetooth and wifi networks
medtop:20000235 construction and property All items pertaining to the construction and sale of property
medtop:20000317 building material Manufacturing of the materials used in construction, such as wallboard, lumber and wire
medtop:20001246 (retired) commercial building (retired) The construction of buildings for commerce and business, including office buildings, retail shops, restaurants, hotels and stadiums (retired)
medtop:20001367 commercial real estate The building and sale of property used for business purposes rather than as a living space
medtop:20000236 (retired) design and engineering (retired) Design and planning by engineers, architects etc. of roads, offices, factories, dams , offshore structures. (retired)
medtop:20000237 (retired) farms (retired) Agricultural areas for the production of foodstuffs, including dairy products, fruits and livestock, such as cattle and fish (retired)
medtop:20000238 (retired) heavy construction (retired) Large scale construction projects, construction of roads, dams, office/factory buildings, offshore and onshore structures, large sport stadiums (retired)
medtop:20000239 (retired) house building (retired) Construction of residences, for private use (retired)
medtop:20001245 infrastructure projects The construction of the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or other area, including roads, bridges, dams, tunnels, telecommunications and electrical grids
medtop:20000240 (retired) land price (retired) The price of land in specific zoned areas such as commercial, residential or arable as provided by a responsible body (retired)
medtop:20000241 (retired) real estate (retired) The buying, selling, renting and leasing of properties of all types (retired)
medtop:20001368 residential real estate The building and sale of property to be used as living space
medtop:20000243 consumer goods Items produced for and sold to individuals
medtop:20000244 (retired) beverage (retired) Liquid consumables, both alcoholic and non-alcoholic (retired)
medtop:20000324 beverage and grocery The production and sale of foodstuffs
medtop:20000245 clothing The manufacturing and purchasing of apparel
medtop:20001258 consumer electronics Electronic devices, such as computers, smart phones or televisions, designed and sold for personal use
medtop:20000325 furnishings and furniture Manufacture of furniture, wallpaper, paints and fabrics for interior decoration
medtop:20000248 (retired) grocery (retired) The selling of edible goods for human consumption to the end customers (retired)
medtop:20001160 handicrafts The creators and sellers of crafts and the making and selling of the supplies used to make those crafts
medtop:20000249 luxury good Non-essential high-end goods, such as leather bags, jewellery or supercars
medtop:20000251 (retired) non-durable good (retired) Products meant to only be used for a short period of time (retired)
medtop:20001168 pet product and service Hygiene products, care and nutrition for pets
medtop:20000330 tobacco and nicotine The sale and maufacturing of tobacco products for consumers, including cigarettes, e-cigarettes and vaping cartridges
medtop:20000254 toy and game Children's playthings or collectible items for adults, such as dolls, action figures and miniatures
medtop:20000256 energy and resource The use of natural resources to generate energy
medtop:20001207 biofuel Fuel that is derived from biomass, such as ethanol
medtop:20000258 coal Production and mining of anthracite and bituminous products for use in power production
medtop:20000261 (retired) energy industry (retired) The energy industry, not focused on any specific sector (retired)
medtop:20000265 nuclear power Use of radioactive materials for power production
medtop:20001243 oil and gas The exploration, extraction, refining, transporting and marketing of petroleum products and natural gas
medtop:20000259 diesel fuel A distilled petroleum product heavier than gasoline used for trucks, marine engines, certain cars and in some forms for home heating
medtop:20000262 (retired) kerosene/paraffin (retired) A light petroleum distillate used for cooking fuel, aircraft jet engines, lamps, heating and cleaning (retired)
medtop:20000263 natural gas A natural resource, mainly methane in a flammable gaseous state extracted from the ground
medtop:20000268 petrol Distilled petroleum product used for automotive fuel, with or without additives
medtop:20000266 (retired) oil and gas - downstream activities (retired) All matters concerning oil and gas, typically refining and distribution activities (retired)
medtop:20000267 (retired) oil and gas - upstream activities (retired) All matters concerning oil and gas, typically supply chain activities from the reservoir to the refinery gate (retired)
medtop:20000257 renewable energy Energy derived from sustainable sources
medtop:20001208 geothermal power Thermal energy that is generated and stored in the Earth
medtop:20001210 hydroelectric power Electricity produced from hydropower when water flows through turbines
medtop:20001209 solar power Electricity generated and harvested from the sun's rays
medtop:20001211 wind power Electricity that is generated by kinetic energy of wind, usually produced by windmills or turbines
medtop:20000271 (retired) financial and business service (retired) Services that transmit, safeguard, keep track of money or provide backup to commercial enterprises (retired)
medtop:20000277 (retired) funeral parlour and crematorium (retired) Companies that provide services for disposal of the dead (retired)
medtop:20000285 (retired) personal finance (retired) An individual's income and expenses (retired)
medtop:20000286 (retired) personal income (retired) Money that a person earns and is his/hers to keep or spend (retired)
medtop:20000289 (retired) printing service (retired) The production of printed matter such as flyers, ads, signs, etc. (retired)
medtop:20001370 financial service Professional services involving the investment, lending or management of money and other assets
medtop:20000272 accountancy and auditing Companies that provide balance sheet preparation and budget reconciliation services and examine accuracy of financial statements
medtop:20001162 asset management Managing investments on behalf of others
medtop:20000274 banking Financial institutions and services for storing, transmitting, receiving and delivering money
medtop:20000280 financial advisory service Financial advisers, as opposed to stock dealers or consultants
medtop:20000279 insurance A risk-taking venture that allows individuals to pay small amounts periodically to guard financially against unexpected events
medtop:20000393 loans and lending An agreement by an individual or institution to borrow money with an agreed interest rate and time for its return
medtop:20000287 personal finance and investment Investing an individual's savings in the hope of future gains
medtop:20000292 stock broking The buying and selling of company shares on behalf of individuals or other entities
medtop:20000214 forestry and timber The production, collection and preparation of wood products
medtop:20001354 healthcare industry Goods and services to treat patients through curative, preventive, rehabilitative and palliative care
medtop:20000218 biotechnology business The business of using engineering technology to study and solve problems of living organisms
medtop:20000278 health care provider Organisations and individuals that provide medical services at all levels
medtop:20001167 medical equipment Manufacture of medical and surgical devices for diagnosis and treatment such as optical and imaging equipment
medtop:20000223 pharmaceutical The production of medicines from various chemicals and natural substances and the research and discovery around new medications
medtop:20000294 manufacturing and engineering Manufacturers of electrical, electronic and mechanical equipment but does not cover civil engineering.
medtop:20000295 aerospace Companies that assemble or manufacture components for airplanes and space ships.
medtop:20000296 automotive Companies that manufacture automotive components and assemble automobiles
medtop:20001165 (retired) capital goods (retired) Durable goods used in the production of other goods or services. (retired)
medtop:20000297 defence equipment Manufacturers of guns, tanks, ships or other equipment for military and non-military protection services
medtop:20000298 electrical appliance Makers of large and small electrical goods for use in homes or business
medtop:20000299 heavy engineering Manufacturers of engineering equipment, such as cranes and bulldozers, for use in major construction projects
medtop:20000300 (retired) industrial component (retired) Manufacturers of mechanical, electrical, electronic items needed in the manufacture of other items (retired)
medtop:20000301 (retired) instrument engineering (retired) Manufacturers of instruments for calibration, measurement of things like speed, pressure, distance (retired)
medtop:20000302 machine manufacturing Manufacturers of turbines, engines, fans, pumps, motors and other components for powered equipment
medtop:20001166 railway manufacturing Manufactures of rolling stock and suppliers for the maintenance and repair of railroads
medtop:20000303 shipbuilding Manufacturers of ships and submersibles and suppliers for the maintenance and repair of these vessels
medtop:20000304 media and entertainment industry The various means of disseminating news, information and entertainment to the public
medtop:20000305 advertising Methods of promoting goods and services to consumers
medtop:20000306 books and publishing The business of producing and selling books, including e-books and audiobooks
medtop:20000307 film industry The business of making, selling and distributing films
medtop:20000308 music industry Recording, production and marketing of music
medtop:20000309 (retired) news agency (retired) Commercial agencies for production and distribution of newsworthy events through print, broadcast, video or electronic media (retired)
medtop:20001372 news industry The production and distribution of content about newsworthy events through print, broadcast, video or electronic media
medtop:20000310 (retired) newspaper and magazine (retired) The business of producing bound and unbound printed paper products for periodic distribution of news items (retired)
medtop:20000311 (retired) online media industry (retired) The business of distributing news and information through computer networks for public consumption (retired)
medtop:20001369 podcast Podcast networks and the people who create and distribute audio content, typically in a series format, to audiences
medtop:20000312 public relations The business of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization to the public in order to influence their perception
medtop:20000313 radio industry Companies and organisations involved in the broadcast of radio stations and their content to the public
medtop:20000314 satellite and cable service The business of transmitting news, entertainment and information via satellite or cable television services
medtop:20001293 streaming service Providers of entertainment (music, movies, series, etc.) that deliver the content via an internet connection to the subscriber's computer, TV or mobile device
medtop:20000315 television industry The production and broadcasting of television content
medtop:20000316 metal and mineral mining and refining The extractive businesses that remove raw materials, including coal, gold iron and copper, from the earth by drilling and pumping, quarrying or mining
medtop:20000319 (retired) iron and steel (retired) Mining, refining and sales of iron-based metals (retired)
medtop:20000320 (retired) mining (retired) The industry of digging for metals, minerals, raw materials, such as coal, or precious gems, such as diamonds (retired)
medtop:20000321 (retired) non-ferrous metal (retired) Mining, refining and sales of copper, zinc, aluminium, and other metals not based on iron (retired)
medtop:20000318 precious material The mining, refining and sale of materials such as gold, silver, precious metals, diamonds and rare earths
medtop:20000224 plastic The production of plastics and issues around plastic consumption, including bans, recycling, using less plastics and plastic alternatives
medtop:20000322 (retired) process industry (retired) The business of turning raw materials into useable products (retired)
medtop:20000323 (retired) distiller and brewer (retired) Manufacture of alcoholic beverages (retired)
medtop:20001169 (retired) e-cigarette (retired) An electronic cigarette is a battery-operated device with an atomizer and a cartridge containing either a nicotine or a non-nicotine liquid solution. (retired)
medtop:20000326 (retired) paper and packaging product (retired) Production of paper material for writing, wrapping, printing, or packaging (retired)
medtop:20000327 (retired) rubber product (retired) Production of rubber-based materials for gloves, protective coatings, hoses and the like (retired)
medtop:20000328 (retired) soft drinks (retired) Production of non-alcoholic drinks (retired)
medtop:20000329 (retired) textile and clothing (retired) Production of fabrics for furnishings and fixtures, and for clothing of various types (retired)
medtop:20001289 sales channel Indirect or direct ways of bringing products or services to market so that they can be purchased by consumers
medtop:20000273 auction Auction houses and all types of auctions, such as police auctions and silent auctions
medtop:20000252 retail The selling of goods directly to consumers
medtop:20000246 department store Store selling a variety of goods, such as clothing, housewares, jewellery and cosmetics
medtop:20000250 (retired) mail order (retired) Items sold through and delivered by mail (retired)
medtop:20000247 online shopping Buying and selling items through the internet
medtop:20001297 shopping district and high street Primary retail streets of towns or cities containing individual stores and restaurants
medtop:20001296 shopping mall A large building or series of connected buildings that contain a variety of retail stores and food vendors
medtop:20000253 specialty store Retail outlets that specialise in categories such as shoes, coats, power tools, etc
medtop:20000255 wholesale The first link in the sales chain after production
medtop:20000331 tourism and leisure industry Commercial organisations and operations dealing with travel and the pursuit of recreational activities
medtop:20000332 casinos and gambling Organisations providing outlets for betting money on games of chance or animal races
medtop:20000333 hotel and accommodation The business of providing lodging to travellers
medtop:20000334 recreational and sporting goods Manufacture of goods for leisure activities
medtop:20000335 restaurant and catering The business of providing prepared food for customers
medtop:20000336 tour operator Operators of trips either locally or internationally
medtop:20000337 transport The means of getting people or goods from one place to another
medtop:20000338 air transport The movement of passengers and freight by air
medtop:20001170 logistics Supply chain, inventory management and transportation of products.
medtop:20001362 public transport Forms of transportation, such as buses and trains, that charge set fares, run on fixed routes and are available to the general public
medtop:20000340 railway transport The movement of passengers and freight by rail
medtop:20000341 road transport The movement of passengers and freight by road
medtop:20001364 shared transport A network of vehicles, such as cars, bikes and scooters, that can be rented by travellers on an as-needed basis for short-term use
medtop:20001363 taxi and ride-hailing On-demand ride service, provided by taxi companies or tech companies such as Uber and Lyft, the drivers who transport passengers and the rules and regulations imposed upon these companies within a region
medtop:20000342 (retired) traffic (retired) Traffic reports and/or warnings (retired)
medtop:20000343 waterway and maritime transport Commercial movement of people or goods via boats, ships and water
medtop:20001244 utilities The providing of basic services to the public, such as supplying water, waste removal, heating and cooling
medtop:20000260 electricity The power line distribution system and the sale of electrical power at wholesale and retail levels
medtop:20001291 heating and cooling The business of supplying heat or cooling to private residences and commercial buildings
medtop:20000269 waste management The collecting, disposing or recycling of household and business waste
medtop:20000270 water supply The business of providing water for household and commercial use
medtop:05000000 education All aspects of furthering knowledge, formally or informally
medtop:20000412 curriculum The courses offered by a learning institution and the regulation of those courses
medtop:20001217 educational grading The evaluation of a student's achievement on a test, assignment or course and the policies and methods around assigning those grades
medtop:20000413 educational testing and examinations Polices and standards around the testing and assessment of students, including the merits of standardised testing, and testing methods
medtop:20000414 entrance examination Exams for entering colleges, universities and all other higher and lower education institutions
medtop:20001337 online and remote learning Learning where a student and teacher are not physically present in the same location. Instruction can occur synchronously or asynchronously and utilizes technology such as video conferencing, online assessments and video conferencing.
medtop:20000398 parents group Group of parents set up to support educational activities of their children
medtop:20000399 religious education Instruction by any faith about that faith's principles and beliefs, including Sunday school or preparation for a religious rite, such as a bar mitzvah
medtop:20000400 school A building or institution in which education is provided
medtop:20000403 adult and continuing education Education for adults who have left the formal education system that offers new forms of knowledge or skills, including professional certificates and online courses provided by companies such as CodeAcademy or Udemy
medtop:20000405 college and university Institutions of higher learning that provide degrees in a course of study at the undergraduate, postgraduate or doctorate level
medtop:20000406 (retired) college (retired) Institution of higher learning, its specific scope is set differently in different countries (retired)
medtop:20000407 (retired) university (retired) Institutions of higher learning capable of providing doctorate degrees (retired)
medtop:20000409 early childhood education Education for children under the national compulsory education age
medtop:20000402 (retired) further education (retired) Any form of education beyond basic education of several levels (retired)
medtop:20001215 independent school Schools funded by money from taxes via government, but run by companies, organisations or cooperatives
medtop:20000408 lower secondary education Education and schools that build on primary education with a more subject-oriented curriculum. Schools may be called middle schools or junior highs in the United States.
medtop:20000401 primary education Education and schools designed to provide students with fundamental skills in reading, writing and mathematics and to establish a solid foundation for later learning
medtop:20001214 private school Schools maintained by private funds and organisations
medtop:20001212 religious school School that has a religious component in its operations or its curriculum
medtop:20001213 state school Schools maintained by public funds, usually government-imposed taxes
medtop:20000404 upper secondary education Education and schools preparing students for tertiary eduction or providing skills relevant to employment through a curriculum with an increased range of subject options and streams
medtop:20000410 social learning The learning of social skills and behaviors through the imitation and observation of others. This can include formal and informal instruction around empathy, emotions and mental health.
medtop:20000415 students Students as a demographic, including student protests and requests for change and trends among students
medtop:20000416 teachers Teachers as a demographic, including teacher unions, teacher education and training and the criteria for teachers in various locations
medtop:20000411 (retired) teaching and learning (retired) Either end of the education equation (retired)
medtop:20001216 vocational education Education that provides students with practical experience and training in a particular occupational field. It is sometimes referred to as career education or technical education
medtop:06000000 environment All aspects of protection, damage, and condition of the ecosystem of the planet earth and its surroundings.
medtop:20000418 climate change Significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period
medtop:20000419 global warming This category includes all issues relating to global warming including temperature research, remote sensing on temperature trends, debate on global warming, ways to reduce emissions and carbon trading.
medtop:20000420 conservation Preservation of wilderness areas, flora and fauna, including species extinction
medtop:20000421 energy saving Conservation of electrical, and other power sources
medtop:20000422 parks Areas set aside for preservation
medtop:20000424 environmental pollution Corruption of air, water, land etc. by harmful substances
medtop:20000425 air pollution Solid or gaseous matter affecting the quality of air that we breathe
medtop:20000426 environmental clean-up Processes whereby contaminated areas are cleaned of hazardous materials so they can be inhabited again by either people or animals.
medtop:20000427 hazardous materials Materials that are harmful to humans or animals if they are exposed to them. Includes radiation, poison gases, chemicals, heavy metals, PCBs, and certain plant products
medtop:20000428 waste materials The environmental impact of waste, including recycling efforts
medtop:20000429 water pollution Solids or liquids that corrupt the quality of water that could be used for drinking or irrigation
medtop:20000430 natural resources Environmental issues related to the exploitation of natural resources
medtop:20000431 energy resources Such resources as coal, gas, wind, sunlight etc., used to generate heat, electricity and power
medtop:20000432 land resources That portion of a nation or state that is above water and available for development either for profit or for the general good of the public
medtop:20000433 forests Open areas of trees either available for public enjoyment, or for commercial purposes
medtop:20000434 mountains Elevated land masses formed over the ages either by erosion, volcanic eruption, or movement of massive geographical formations called plates
medtop:20000435 population growth People and their growth and development within a natural setting
medtop:20000436 (retired) renewable energy (retired) The environmental impact of renewable energy, including solar, wind, hydro, biomass and geothermal (retired)
medtop:20000437 water Environmental issues about bodies of water, including oceans, lakes, streams and reservoirs, as well as ice, glaciers and forms of precipitation
medtop:20000438 oceans Salt water masses separating continents or other major geographical masses. smaller forms are seas or lakes or ponds
medtop:20000439 rivers Moving water areas bounded by land that extend from earth sources and meander through land areas to join with other water areas. In smaller forms they are creeks, rivulets, streams etc
medtop:20000440 wetlands Areas generally marshy and not either under water or dry land. Often related to aquifers for water quality and/or wildlife
medtop:20000441 nature The natural world in its entirety
medtop:20000500 animal Human interest and cultural stories related to animals, including pets
medtop:20000494 animal disease Disease affecting animals
medtop:20001318 pests Animals or insects that invade a human space causing destruction or unsanitary conditions
medtop:20000442 ecosystem A system of plants, animals and bacteria interrelated in its physical/chemical environment
medtop:20000443 endangered species Those species in danger of disappearing, largely because of changes in environment, hunting, or weather
medtop:20000507 flowers and plants Human interest and cultural stories related to plants, flowers and trees
medtop:20000495 plant disease Disorders affecting plants caused either by parasites or environmental factors
medtop:20000444 invasive species Non-native plants, animals and other organisms that tend to take over native species
medtop:20001374 sustainability Actions by businesses, governments and individuals to counter major environmental problems, including climate change, loss of biodiversity, loss of ecosystem services, land degradation and air and water pollution
medtop:07000000 health All aspects of physical and mental well-being
medtop:20000446 disease and condition Any health conditions affecting humans
medtop:20000447 cancer A serious and often fatal disease caused when normal cells mutate into tumours
medtop:20000448 communicable disease Diseases that can be transmitted from one person or animal to another
medtop:20000449 epidemic and pandemic A disease that affects a large number of people within a community, population, region or that has spread to multiple countries or continents across the world
medtop:20001218 (retired) pandemic (retired) An epidemic of infectious disease that has spread across a large region or even worldwide (retired)
medtop:20000450 (retired) plague (disease) (retired) A highly infectious epidemic disease caused by the Yersinia pestis bacteria (retired)
medtop:20000451 viral disease Diseases caused by an infection by viruses
medtop:20000452 HIV and AIDS HIV, a virus that attacks the body's immune system, and AIDS the disease caused by HIV
medtop:20000453 (retired) retrovirus (retired) A family of RNA viruses such as those causing leukaemia and AIDS (retired)
medtop:20001355 developmental disorder Conditions due to an impairment in learning, language or behavior areas, such as autism, aspergers and dyslexia
medtop:20000454 heart disease Diseases and conditions affecting the heart such as heart attacks, the narrowing of arteries, arrhythmia or cardiomyopathy
medtop:20000455 (retired) illness (retired) Non-specific maladies such as stomach aches, headaches, flat feet, lumbago (retired)
medtop:20000456 injury Harm caused to the human body by external forces such as falls, weapons or accidents
medtop:20000457 medical condition An abnormal condition that affects the structure and functioning of the body, such as chronic pain, high blood pressure or osteoperosis
medtop:20000460 obesity A condition of body weight generally considered 20 percent above the norm for gender, age, height and bone structure
medtop:20000458 mental health and disorder The psychological well-being of an individual and the diseases and disorders that affect mood, thinking and behaviour as well as actions taken to bring improvement and awareness to these conditions
medtop:20001357 anxiety and stress A mental health disorder characterised by feelings of worry, anxiousness or fear that are strong enough to interfere with one's daily activities
medtop:20001356 depression A mental health disorder characterised by persistently depressed mood and loss of interest in activities, causing significant impairment in daily life
medtop:20000459 eating disorder Anorexia, bulimia, overeating and similar illnesses
medtop:20001322 poisoning When a substance in sufficient quantity adversely affects the body and its functions
medtop:20000480 government health care Health care provided by governments at any level
medtop:20000481 (retired) Medicaid (retired) A program of the U.S. government to provide health care to needy citizens of all ages (retired)
medtop:20000482 (retired) Medicare (retired) A program of the U.S. government to provide health care to senior citizens (retired)
medtop:20000461 health facility Facilities used for any kind of health care
medtop:20001229 healthcare clinic Local medical facility or doctor's office associated with a general medicine practice, staffed by one or many doctors, focusing on outpatient treatment or giving recommendations to visit a specialist or hospital
medtop:20000462 hospital Medical facilities for the treatment of illnesses and injury
medtop:20000483 health insurance Insurance covering medical costs
medtop:20000463 health organisation Specific health organisations, including professional associations, non-profit and international groups
medtop:20000464 health treatment and procedure Remedies, therapies, interventions, medications, testing and treatments to prevent, diagnose, manage or improve a health condition
medtop:20000465 diet Ways of eating to benefit health or treat a condition, such as plant-based, low-salt, high-fibre or gluten-free
medtop:20000466 dietary supplement Nutrients taken in addition to food to bolster health
medtop:20001219 drug rehabilitation Medical or psychotherapeutic treatment for dependency on substances such as alcohol, prescription and controlled drugs
medtop:20001221 emergency care Immediate care of patients with critical medical emergencies, either inside or outside of a hospital
medtop:20000470 health care approach Different approaches to medical care that vary in the methods and substances used to treat symptoms
medtop:20000474 conventional medicine The practice of diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease based on modern scientific research
medtop:20000471 herbal medicine Treatment based on the use of herbs and other plants to cure or alleviate symptoms
medtop:20000472 holistic medicine Treatment of the whole person including mental and environmental factors in addition to treating symptoms
medtop:20000473 traditional Chinese medicine The practice of diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease based on traditional methods developed in Eastern Asia
medtop:20000469 medical test Diagnostic procedure, such as stress test, blood test, CAT scan or MRI
medtop:20000467 non-prescription drug Chemical substances used in the treatment or prevention of physical or mental condition or disease
medtop:20000475 (retired) physical fitness (retired) The measure of the body's ability to function efficiently and effectively during work and leisure activities. (retired)
medtop:20000468 prescription drug Drugs that can be obtained only with a doctor's authorisation
medtop:20000476 (retired) preventative medicine (retired) Substances used to prevent diseases or illnesses (retired)
medtop:20001228 surgery The use of incisions made by medical instruments to investigate or treat a medical condition or injury
medtop:20000478 therapy Treatment of physical, mental or medical conditions by non-surgical means
medtop:20000477 vaccine Medications designed to create immunity to diseases
medtop:20000485 medical profession Profession requiring formal training in the study, diagnosis, treatment, care and prevention of disease, medical condition or injury
medtop:20000486 medical service Medical support for doctors, including blood tests and other medical tests on individuals, X-rays, CAT scans, MRIs, etc
medtop:20000487 medical specialisation The different medical specialist areas
medtop:20000712 dentistry The medical profession and field of study devoted to diagnosing, preventing and treating oral conditions
medtop:20001225 eye care The medical profession and field of study devoted to diagnosing, preventing and treating eye conditions
medtop:20001220 (retired) general practice (retired) The treatment of a wide range of acute and long-term medical conditions and symptoms (retired)
medtop:20000488 (retired) geriatric medicine (retired) Specialty focusing on ageing and age-related issues including age-related illnesses, medical research, and trends. (retired)
medtop:20000489 (retired) obstetrics/gynaecology (retired) Specialty of female reproductive organs (retired)
medtop:20001223 (retired) oncology (retired) A medical specialisation that focuses on the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer (retired)
medtop:20001222 (retired) orthopaedics (retired) A medical specialisation that focuses on conditions involving the musculoskeletal system (retired)
medtop:20000490 paediatrics Medical specialisation that focuses on treating the young, including premature babies, infant care, childhood diseases and teenage health and behaviour problems
medtop:20000713 (retired) pharmacology (retired) The medical profession and field of study concerned with the uses, modes of action and effects of pharmaceutical agents (retired)
medtop:20001227 (retired) psychiatry (retired) A medical specialisation that focuses on the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders (retired)
medtop:20001224 (retired) radiology (retired) A medical specialisation that focuses on the use of medical imaging (such as x-rays) and radiation to diagnose and sometimes also treat diseases within the body (retired)
medtop:20000491 (retired) reproductive medicine (retired) Speciality of reproductive technologies like invitro fertilisation (retired)
medtop:20001226 (retired) surgical medicine (retired) A medical specialisation that focuses on the treatment of injuries or disorders of the body by incision or manipulation, especially with instruments (retired)
medtop:20000714 veterinary medicine The medical profession and field of study devoted to diagnosis, prevention and treatment of medical conditions in animals
medtop:20000492 medical staff Doctors, nurses, interns and others in a medical facility
medtop:20000493 (retired) non-human diseases (retired) Any harmful or destructive health condition affecting animals, plants or microorganisms. (retired)
medtop:20000484 private health care Health care provided by private organisations
medtop:20001358 public health Organised public or private measures designed to prevent disease, promote health and prolong life among the population as a whole
medtop:08000000 human interest Item that discusses individuals, groups, animals, plants or other objects in an emotional way
medtop:20000497 (retired) accomplishment (retired) Achievements by individuals or groups, animals, plants or other objects, such as winning a competitive contest etc (retired)
medtop:20001237 anniversary The celebration or commemoration of a significant amount of years since an event or a notable person's birth or death
medtop:20000498 award and prize The recognition of an achievement in a field in the form of a symbolic item, such as a plaque or trophy or in the form of a monetary gift, such as a cash prize or grant, given by a government or private institution
medtop:20001238 birthday A celebration on the anniversary of a person's birth.
medtop:20000505 celebrity Life and behaviour of famous people
medtop:20000501 ceremony Rituals, such as dedications, wreath laying or celebrating the launching of a ship
medtop:20001235 funeral and memorial service A ceremony to memorialise a deceased person
medtop:20001234 graduation A ceremony, also known as commencement, at which a person receives a diploma or academic degree
medtop:20001233 name ceremony Event at which an infant, youth, or adult is given a name
medtop:20001236 wedding Marriage ceremony and the events and parties surrounding it, such as wedding receptions, engagement parties, bridal showers and hen or stag parties
medtop:20000504 high society Life and behaviour of the rich and socialites
medtop:20000506 royalty Imperial and royal family members in their societal rather than governmental roles
medtop:20000503 human mishap Silly or stupid human errors
medtop:20000502 (retired) people (retired) Individuals or groups with a focus on emotional facets (retired)
medtop:20000499 record and achievement Non-sport achievement by an individual or group that sets a new record, such as most books read or holding one's breath the longest
medtop:09000000 labour Social aspects, organisations, rules and conditions affecting the employment of human effort for the generation of wealth or provision of services and the economic support of the unemployed.
medtop:20000509 employment The state of having work, usually paid, for a company, organisation, or individual
medtop:20000510 apprenticeship A period of work used to learn a skill or trade
medtop:20000511 child labour The employment of children
medtop:20000339 commuting The process of getting to and from work, including transport options, travel networks, car pooling.
medtop:20000512 employee Those who are paid or otherwise compensated for providing services to employers
medtop:20000513 employer People and organisations that pay employees to provide services
medtop:20000514 employment training Learning new skills as part of an existing job, such as developing specialisations, learning new techniques or retraining when an employee's skills are no longer relevant
medtop:20000515 (retired) advanced training (retired) Additional training to enhance current skills (retired)
medtop:20000516 (retired) retraining (retired) Providing a worker training in new skills when his old skills are no longer applicable (retired)
medtop:20000517 (retired) occupations (retired) Generally one's trade, profession or business although professions are usually such things as lawyers and doctors, and occupations are such as clerks or truckers (retired)
medtop:20001276 parental leave Time off work to give birth or care for a child
medtop:20001206 self-employment A situation in which an individual works for themselves as a freelancer or business owner instead of working for an employer that pays a salary or a wage
medtop:20001277 volunteering Unpaid work undertaken freely by individuals as a service to others
medtop:20000518 wages and benefits Money, or other items of value such as pension contributions and health insurance, paid to employees as compensation for their work
medtop:20000519 (retired) employee benefits (retired) Benefits provided to an employee by a company, such as pension contributions, health insurance. (retired)
medtop:20001375 profit sharing A system by which employees are paid a share of the net profits of their employer. These earnings are distinct from and additional to regular wages.
medtop:20000520 social security a government system that provides monetary assistance to people with inadequate or no incomes, such as retirees, disabled people or carers
medtop:20000521 employment legislation Laws governing employment
medtop:20000522 workplace health and safety Laws protecting a safe and healthy work environment
medtop:20000523 labour market The supply and demand of labour in an economy
medtop:20001275 gig economy a labour market consisting of individual suppliers on short-term contracts or freelance work as opposed to permanent jobs, such as drivers or delivery workers
medtop:20000524 labour relations The relationship between workers and employers
medtop:20000525 collective agreements Negotiated guidelines for relationships between groups of employees and employers, including issues such as working hours, wages, health care, pensions and other benefits
medtop:20000526 (retired) contract issue-healthcare (retired) Element of contracts and contract discussions centring on health care issues (retired)
medtop:20000527 (retired) contract issue-wages (retired) Element of contracts and contract discussions centring on remuneration (retired)
medtop:20000528 (retired) contract issue-work rules (retired) Element of contracts and contract discussions centring on rules affecting issues such as lunch and other breaks, work shifts, vacation scheduling, seniority, sick leave etc. (retired)
medtop:20000529 labour dispute Disagreements between employers and employees regarding work conditions, pay or other issues
medtop:20000530 labour strike Groups of employees agreeing to cease work activities with the aim of achieving better pay or work conditions
medtop:20000531 retirement The years after work
medtop:20000532 pension Payments, either government or private, to retired people
medtop:20000533 unemployment The state of being available to work but not having a job
medtop:20000534 (retired) job layoffs (retired) The reduction of a company's work force through dismissal because of changing economic factors (retired)
medtop:20000535 unemployment benefits Monetary compensation paid to the jobless
medtop:20000536 unions Groups established to represent bodies of workers in order to obtain better workplace conditions through collective bargaining
medtop:10000000 lifestyle and leisure Activities undertaken for pleasure, relaxation or recreation outside paid employment, including eating and travel.
medtop:20000538 leisure Activities carried out in ones' spare time and not in a competitive way.
medtop:20000539 club and association Organisations joined by individuals because of similar interests
medtop:20000540 game Contests generally for one's amusement
medtop:20000541 board game A game played on a board
medtop:20000542 card game A game played with a pack of cards
medtop:20000543 children's game A game designed for and most often played by children
medtop:20000544 dice game A game played using dice only
medtop:20000545 outdoor game A game played in an open space
medtop:20000546 puzzle A game played solving logic problems for entertainment
medtop:20000547 tile game A game played using tiles
medtop:20000548 video game A game played using a video display
medtop:20000549 gaming and lottery Gambling, often involving selection of sets of numbers one expects to come up
medtop:20000550 hobby Recreational pursuit
medtop:20000566 automobile enthusiasm Interest in new and classic cars
medtop:20000567 bicycle enthusiasm Interest in new and classic manpowered cycles
medtop:20001247 collecting The hobby of seeking, locating, acquiring, organising, cataloguing, displaying, storing or maintaining items that are of interest to an individual collector
medtop:20000568 food and drink enthusiasm Interest in eating and drinking
medtop:20001254 beer, wine and spirits Interest in the consumption, production and collection of alcoholic beverages
medtop:20001253 cooking and baking Interest in preparing meals or baked goods
medtop:20000571 motorcycle enthusiasm Interest in new and classic motor-powered cycles
medtop:20000551 holiday Time spent not at work for rest and relaxation
medtop:20001270 Halloween A celebration observed in a number of countries on 31 October with activities including trick-or-treating, wearing costumes, carving pumpkins,visiting haunted attractions, telling scary stories and watching horror films
medtop:20000552 public holiday A day of celebration declared by a government
medtop:20001267 Midsummer Northern European celebrations that accompany the Summer solstice
medtop:20001268 National day A designated day to celebrate a nation
medtop:20001269 New year The celebration of the end of one calendar year and the start of next
medtop:20000553 leisure venue A place where people go to be entertained or amused. For sporting events, use sport venue.
medtop:20000554 amusement park A park providing various rides and entertainment attractions for both adults and children, including theme parks
medtop:20000555 bar A business where drinks are prepared and served to the public for consumption on the premises
medtop:20000556 cafe A small business where drinks and snacks are prepared and served - its specifics may depend on the local culture
medtop:20000557 nightclub A commercial establishment providing music, or other entertainment along with food and drink to selected clientele
medtop:20000558 restaurant A business where meals are prepared and served to the public
medtop:20000559 (retired) sports facilities (retired) Gymnasiums, stadiums or arenas where sports events take place (retired)
medtop:20001315 zoo A park where visitors can see both wild and tame animals that are kept in cages or enclosed areas
medtop:20000560 outdoor recreational activities Leisure activities engaged in the outdoors, most commonly in natural settings
medtop:20000561 fishing A recreational activity involving the use of baits, lures, weapons and traps for the capture of aquatic species.
medtop:20001241 horseback riding The riding of horses for leisure or light exercise.
medtop:20000562 hunting An activity involving the use of weapons or traps for the capturing of animals
medtop:20001142 recreational hiking and climbing Sportive activities in the mountains including climbing and hiking
medtop:20000917 scuba diving Underwater diving with the use of a self-contained underwater breathing apparatus
medtop:20000563 travel and tourism Spending time away from home in pursuit of recreation, relaxation or pleasure
medtop:20000564 (retired) tourism (retired) Leisure travel involving visits to a number of locations and/or countries over an extended period of time, often as part of an organised group (retired)
medtop:20000565 lifestyle The way in which a person lives, including their style and possessions
medtop:20000570 house and home Interest in maintaining and decorating one's home
medtop:20001257 gardening Interest in working in one's garden
medtop:20001255 home renovation Interest in renovating one's property
medtop:20001256 interior decoration Interest in decorating one's home
medtop:20000569 organic food Food which is grown using no artificial fertilisers or chemical compounds
medtop:20001143 party A social gathering of invited guests, often involving eating, drinking, dancing or the playing of games
medtop:20000572 trend Interest in what is considered hip or popular at a certain point in time
medtop:20001250 body modification Actions taken to permanently or semi-permanently change body appearance, such as piercing and tattooing
medtop:20001252 piercing A form of body modification involving the puncturing or cutting of a part of the human body, creating an opening in which jewellery may be worn or where an implant could be inserted
medtop:20001251 tattooing A form of body modification where a design is made by inserting ink, dyes and pigments into the dermis layer of the skin to permanently change the pigment
medtop:20001339 wellness The active pursuit of good mental and physical health
medtop:20001239 exercise and fitness Physical activity with the purpose to maintain and improve health and wellness, gain stamina or for enjoyment
medtop:20001340 mental wellbeing The personal pursuit of mental health through activities such as meditation, stress reduction, technology detoxes and journalling
medtop:11000000 politics Local, regional, national and international exercise of power, or struggle for power, and the relationships between governing bodies and states.
medtop:20000574 election The selection of representatives by the casting of votes
medtop:20001263 church elections Elections to choose leaders to run church organisations at various levels
medtop:20000575 citizens' initiative and recall Political suggestions by non-government officials for corrective action, or for changes in existing rules and regulations
medtop:20000576 electoral system Voting systems
medtop:20000577 intergovernmental elections Choosing individuals for the government of an international organization, such as the United Nations, European Union, NATO and World Bank
medtop:20000578 local elections Choosing individuals for government at the basic level, whether city, village or county
medtop:20000579 national elections Choosing individuals for government at a national level
medtop:20000580 political campaigns Campaigns for public office
medtop:20000581 campaign finance The money that makes campaigns for public office possible
medtop:20000582 political candidates Individuals who are chosen to stand for office
medtop:20001266 political debates Organised debates between political candidates, live in front of an audience or broadcast in some manner
medtop:20000583 primary elections Preliminary elections on a local or regional basis leading up to a regional or national election
medtop:20000584 referenda Political proposals, laws and actions suggested by non-government officials to be voted on by the entire voting body
medtop:20000585 regional elections Choosing individuals for government at a regional level
medtop:20000586 voting The act of selecting an individual you would like to represent your interests in government
medtop:20000587 fundamental rights The political, social and economic rights to which all creatures are entitled, usually upheld by law.
medtop:20000588 censorship and freedom of speech Attempts by any group to control freedoms of speech, religion, and ideas distributed in print, graphics, cyberspace and other ways. Does not include official standards such as cinema ratings, advertising and broadcast standards.
medtop:20000120 civil rights Rights of individuals under civil law
medtop:20000590 freedom of religion Religious rights and freedoms, pressure and intimidation of believers, censorship in mass media, activities of government bodies, journalistic associations and/or organisations and other NGOs in regard to freedom of belief and practice
medtop:20000591 freedom of the press Mass media rights and freedoms, pressure and intimidation of the journalists, censorship in mass media, activities of government bodies, journalistic associations and/or organisations and other NGOs in regards to press freedom
medtop:20000592 human rights Rights entitled to be enjoyed by all citizens universally
medtop:20001300 privacy The right of an individual or group to keep information about themselves private
medtop:20001326 women's rights Feminism, restrictions on the rights of women and the fight for equality with men
medtop:20000593 government The system for ruling a country
medtop:20000594 civil and public service The paid service by civilians for the government, and the often non-paid service of individuals for the benefit of others (public service)
medtop:20001144 civilian service Unpaid service for the community as civilian
medtop:20000595 public employees People employed by a government at all levels
medtop:20000596 public officials Individuals, usually elected, who are in public service or commonly in the public eye.
medtop:20000597 constitution (law) Usually a written document setting forth the operations of a government and the rights of the citizens therein
medtop:20000598 defence Anything involving the protection of one's own country
medtop:20000599 armed forces Those employed by a government to conduct war, or to enforce the security of a nation
medtop:20001145 military service Service by an individual in an army or militia. Service may be on a volunteer basis or a result of an involuntary draft or government requirement.
medtop:20000600 veterans' affairs Care and provision for those who served in the military
medtop:20000601 military equipment Equipment issued to members of the armed forces
medtop:20000602 military weaponry A country's collection of armaments
medtop:20000603 security measures (defence) Means of making a nation, a state, a building or a person secure from harm and outside interference.
medtop:20000604 national security The philosophy of securing a nation and its borders, as well as the well-being of its citizens
medtop:20000605 espionage and intelligence Covert collection of information
medtop:20000606 executive (government) That portion of a ruling body involving the overall operation of government
medtop:20000607 government budget The expenses and revenues approved by the legislature.
medtop:20000608 public finance The money of government used for paying for public programmes and services and public debt
medtop:20000609 government department Divisions of a government that concentrate on specific areas such as health, welfare, economy or war
medtop:20001261 heads of government The highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony
medtop:20000610 heads of state Symbolic or actual chief representative of a nation, such as royalty, or president or emir, for example
medtop:20000611 impeachment The process of bringing a public official before a tribunal to answer charges of wrongdoing
medtop:20000615 legislative body A legislature of elected officials representing the people that has the authority to make laws
medtop:20000616 lower house (legislature) Lower chamber of a legislative body, such as the US House of Representatives or UK House of Commons
medtop:20000617 upper house (legislature) Senior chamber of a legislative body, such as the US Senate or UK House of Lords
medtop:20000612 local government and authority Authorities at borough, city or county level
medtop:20000613 minister and secretary (government) Senior government official, either elected or appointed, who heads a government department
medtop:20000614 national government The ruling body of a nation
medtop:20001260 political committees A legislative sub-group that focuses on a specific area or action
medtop:20001259 political convention Meeting of political party to nominate a candidate, choose a party leader or set policy
medtop:20001262 public inquiry An official review of events or actions ordered by a government body, including royal commissions
medtop:20000618 regional government and authority Authorities at a level above the local and below the national one. Could be named a state, province, department etc.
medtop:20001173 regulatory authority Authority responsible for the regulation or supervision of a business sector.
medtop:20000621 government policy An overall plan or course of action set out by a government intended to influence and guide decisions and actions towards a desired outcome.
medtop:20001132 cultural policies Government policies affecting cultural affairs
medtop:20000345 economic policy Government directed policy on production, taxes, tariffs and things that affect the direction and health of the economy
medtop:20001292 economic development incentive funding, financial incentive programmes and subsidies to stimulate businesses and parts of the economy
medtop:20000623 nationalisation State takeover of private companies or properties
medtop:20000624 privatisation The transfer of state-owned companies or properties to private owners
medtop:20000625 state-owned enterprise The government as owner of companies, either complete or partial
medtop:20001338 education policy Government programmes and policies related to education and proposals to change or protests against those positions
medtop:20000423 environmental policy Government programs and policies related to the environment and proposals to change or protests against those positions
medtop:20000479 healthcare policy Health-related policy decisions including what different countries are doing regarding prescription drug policies, psychiatric care, health care funding, pandemic response and related topics
medtop:20000626 interior policy Government policies affecting internal affairs
medtop:20000627 data protection policy Efforts to protect personal information in either written, oral or electronic form
medtop:20000628 housing and urban planning policy Systematic planning of urban and suburban areas and the housing within those areas
medtop:20001264 infrastructure policy Policies regarding the development and maintenance of the fundamental facilities of a country, city or other area that make business activity possible, such as communication, transportation and distribution networks
medtop:20001146 integration policy Improving the co-existence of groups of the society
medtop:20000630 pension and welfare policy Government policies affecting the well-being of its citizens through unemployment benefits, state pensions and other similar payments
medtop:20000631 personal data collection policy The collection, by government or other entities of information on individuals
medtop:20000632 personal weapon control policy Government control of personal ownership of firearms and other offensive weapons, including control of weapons used for sports through licenses and other means
medtop:20000633 planning inquiries Public hearings or planning inquiries on proposed constructions, e.g. Construction of water driven power station in a National Park.
medtop:20000629 policy towards indigenous people Government policies toward indigenous peoples
medtop:20001174 regional development policy Public or private actions carried out to develop a region.
medtop:20001265 local government policy Policies for the development and maintenance of a local government area
medtop:20000634 migration policy Movement of one body of persons from one place to another
medtop:20000635 nuclear policy Government policies as regards to use of nuclear fuels for power production or weapons
medtop:20000636 regulation of industry The rules and bodies, both national and international, that govern conflict of interest and good practice regulations.
medtop:20000637 food and drink regulations Government policies relating to food and drink
medtop:20000619 safety of citizens Government policies to protect the well-being of its citizens
medtop:20001147 sports policies Government policies affecting sports
medtop:20000620 taxation A levy to fund government expenditure
medtop:20000638 international relations Non-violent relations between nations through negotiation, treaty, or personal meetings
medtop:20001316 border disputes Diplomatic issues between two countries surrounding the border, sometimes involving military conflict
medtop:20000639 diplomacy The use of verbal and written skills for persuading others to your point of view
medtop:20000640 summit meetings Includes meetings of leaders, foreign and finance ministers from the Group of Eight major nations and Group of Seven industrialized nations.
medtop:20000641 treaty A treaty (as defined by the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties) is a written agreement between international entities that is binding under international law.
medtop:20000642 economic sanction Punitive actions taken by one country against another including trade restrictions, embargoes etc.
medtop:20000643 foreign aid Help provided by one nation to another
medtop:20000644 international organisation Includes organisations with members and functions that cross international borders, and may include intergovernmental organisations of sovereign nations.
medtop:20000645 refugees and internally displaced people A person seeking shelter in another country because of some fear of persecution in his own country
medtop:20000646 non-governmental organisation Groups officially outside of government that lobby, demonstrate or campaign on a wide range of issues such as economics, environment healthcare etc.
medtop:20000647 political crisis Conflict that rises to a level where, depending on events, governments can fall etc
medtop:20000648 political dissent Disagreement between political groups, usually organised and sometimes resulting in imprisonment of the dissenters
medtop:20000649 political process The art or science of participating in the affairs of government, a state of political party
medtop:20000650 lobbying The attempt by non-government bodies and individuals to affect the outcome of legislation through verbal, or other, persuasion
medtop:20000652 political development The creation and rise of political systems and the history of the people and nations that are associated with those systems.
medtop:20000651 political parties and movements Covers both formally recognised and informal political associations
medtop:20001312 political leadership The leaders within a political party
medtop:20000653 political system System designed to provide order to government
medtop:20000654 democracy Government in which the people hold the power either directly, or through elected officials.
medtop:20000655 dictatorship Government in which a single individual or a small group of individuals hold power without consent of the people
medtop:12000000 religion Belief systems, institutions and people who provide moral guidance to followers
medtop:20000657 belief systems A set of beliefs prescribed by an institution or text often focusing on the worship of a higher power and the outlining of moral guidelines
medtop:20000658 Buddhism An Asian religion founded in the 6th century BC in India based on the teachings of the Buddha with the goal of overcoming suffering and transcending desire and the individual self to achieve nirvana
medtop:20000659 Christianity Religions that follow the teachings of Jesus Christ and the Bible
medtop:20001344 Catholicism Largest Christian religion in the world encompassing the Roman Catholic Church which is led by the pope, and Old Catholicism, a breakaway movement founded in 1870 that denies the dogma of infallibility of the pope
medtop:20000663 Christian Orthodoxy Eastern rite churches which are characterised by their continuity with the apostolic church, their liturgy and their territorial churches, mainly in eastern and south-eastern Europe and the Middle East
medtop:20000661 Mormonism Christian religion founded in New York State in the 1820s that follows the teachings of Joseph Smith and the *Book of Mormon*
medtop:20000662 (retired) Old Catholic (retired) Members of a catholic church which started in 1870 and denies the dogma of the infallibility of the pope (retired)
medtop:20000664 Protestantism Christian denominations that were formed through the 16th century Reformation movement
medtop:20000665 (retired) Anglican (retired) Members of the worldwide Anglican communion which started in the 16th century in England as a breakaway church from the roman catholic church (retired)
medtop:20000666 (retired) Baptist (retired) Members of a Christian church which only baptises adults who truly believe in Christ (retired)
medtop:20000667 (retired) Lutheran (retired) Christians who follow the teaching of reformer Martin Luther (retired)
medtop:20000668 (retired) Mennonite (retired) Members of a 16th century Christian church which is against military service and baptising infants (retired)
medtop:20000669 (retired) Methodist (retired) Followers of John and Charles Wesley who tried to reform the Church of England in the 18th century and turned into a separate church (retired)
medtop:20000670 (retired) Reformed (retired) Christians who follow the teaching of reformers Johannes Calvin and Ulrich Zwingli (retired)
medtop:20000671 (retired) Roman Catholic (retired) Biggest Christian church worldwide tracing its origins back to Jesus Christ (retired)
medtop:20000672 (retired) concordat (retired) Treaty between the Holy See and another country for the regulation of ecclesiastical affairs in the territory of the latter (retired)
medtop:20000660 (retired) ecumenism (retired) Relations between Christian churches (retired)
medtop:20000673 Confucianism A system of thought and behavior originating in ancient China and based on the teachings of the philosopher Confucius
medtop:20000675 (retired) Freemasonry (retired) A secret international society based on the principles of brotherhood, charity and mutual aid (retired)
medtop:20000676 Hinduism A religion and social system originating in India that includes a caste system, a belief in reincarnation and the worship of multiple deities
medtop:20000677 Islam Monotheistic religion that considers Muhammad as a prophet and the Qur'an as holy scripture
medtop:20001347 Shia Islam The second largest branch of Islam believing that the Prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor
medtop:20001348 Sunni Islam The largest branch of Islam believing that the Prophet Muhammad did not designate a successor
medtop:20000678 Jainism A religion beginning in the 7th-5th century BC in India that teaches a path to spiritual purity and enlightenment through a disciplined mode of life founded upon the tradition of ahimsa, nonviolence to all living creatures
medtop:20000679 Judaism A monotheistic religion and culture that follows the teachings of the Torah
medtop:20001351 Hasidism Jewish religious group that believes that the Torah is the literal word of God and that carrying out this word is what gives meaning and purpose to life
medtop:20000682 Scientology A set of beliefs and practices invented by American science fiction author L. Ron Hubbard asserting that a human is an immortal, spiritual being (Thetan) that is resident in a physical body
medtop:20000683 Shintoism An indigenous Japanese polytheistic religion that revolves around kami, supernatural entities believed to inhabit all things
medtop:20000684 Sikhism An Indian Dharmic religion that originated at the end of the 15th century CE in the Punjab region, developed from the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak
medtop:20000685 Taoism A philosophical and spiritual tradition originating in the 4th century BCE in China which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao, the source, pattern and substance of everything that exists
medtop:20000686 Unificationism A religion founded in 1954 in South Korea following the teachings of Rev. Syn Myung Moon and known for its mass wedding ceremonies
medtop:20000681 Zoroastrianism A religion originating in ancient Iran following the teachings of the prophet Zoroaster, predicting the triumph of good over evil and exalting the benevolent deity of wisdom, Ahura Mazda (Wise Lord), as its supreme being
medtop:20001349 atheism and agnosticism The belief that god does not exist or that it is impossible to know whether a god exists
medtop:20000674 cult A group that consists of followers who are fully devoted to a charismatic leader. Members are sometimes exploited financially or subject to emotional or physical harm
medtop:20000680 nature religion Religions that believe nature and the natural world is an embodiment of divinity, sacredness or spiritual power, including indigenous religions practiced in various parts of the world, and modern Pagan faiths, such as Wicca
medtop:20000687 (retired) interreligious dialogue (retired) Any form of communication between religions (retired)
medtop:20000702 relations between religion and government Matters arising from the relationship between religions and a government, including the question of whether churches should pay taxes, the push to keep religion out of publicly funded institutions and the freedom, or lack of to waer religious symbols in a school setting
medtop:20000688 religious conflict Conflicts involving religious differences
medtop:20000689 (retired) religious event (retired) News regarding a religious event but not a festival or holiday (retired)
medtop:20000697 religious facility Any facility where a group carries out its religious rites
medtop:20000698 church A building used as a place of worship for the Christian religion
medtop:20000699 mosque A building used as a place of worship for the Islamic religion
medtop:20000700 synagogue A building used as a place of worship for the Jewish religion
medtop:20000701 (retired) temple (retired) Generally an edifice identifiable as a place of worship (retired)
medtop:20000690 religious festival and holiday Holy day or period of observance in a religion which is sometimes a public holiday
medtop:20001271 All Saints Day Christian festival celebrated in honour of all the saints, known and unknown. Holiday is also known as All Hallows' Day, Hallowmas, Feast of All Saints or Solemnity of All Saints.
medtop:20000691 Christmas Christian holiday that celebrates the birth of Jesus Christ. Is also celebrated by many as a secular holiday.
medtop:20000692 Easter Christian festival commemorating the resurrection of Jesus Christ. Is also celebrated by many as a secular holiday.
medtop:20001350 Eid al-Adha Muslim festival marking the culmination of the annual hajj pilgrimage and commemorating the willingness of the Prophet Ibrahim to sacrifice his son
medtop:20001352 Hanukkah Jewish festival, sometimes spelled Chanukah, observed by lighting the candles of a menorah
medtop:20000693 Pentecost Christian festival, celebrated on the 50th day after Easter commemorating the descent of the Holy Spirit, also known as Whitsun
medtop:20000694 Ramadan Holy month of fasting in Islam concluding in Eid al-Fitr
medtop:20001272 Walpurgis night The eve of the Christian feast day of Saint Walpurga, an 8th-century abbess in Francia, celebrated on the night of 30 April and the day of 1 May
medtop:20000695 Yom Kippur Most solemn of Jewish religious holidays, observed on the 10th day of the lunar month of tishri by fasting and prayer from sunset to sundown the following day
medtop:20000703 religious leader Person or persons who have a ritual, juridical or otherwise leading role in their respective church or religion
medtop:20000704 pope Head of the Roman Catholic Church worldwide
medtop:20000696 religious ritual Established religious rituals such as mass, baptism, prayer meetings and bar and bat mitzvah
medtop:20001273 baptism A Christian religious rite, sometimes also called a Christening, involving the sprinkling of holy water onto a person's forehead or immersing them in water, symbolising purification and admission to the Church
medtop:20001345 bar and bat mitzvah Young person becoming an adult in the Jewish faith
medtop:20001346 canonisation The declaration of a deceased person as an officially recognised saint
medtop:20000705 religious text Texts regarded as holy or important by a religion
medtop:20000706 Bible Holy book of Christianity
medtop:20000707 Qur'an Holy book of Islam
medtop:20000708 Torah Holy book of Judaism
medtop:13000000 science and technology All aspects pertaining to human understanding of, as well as methodical study and research of natural, formal and social sciences, such as astronomy, linguistics or economics
medtop:20000710 biomedical science The application of biology-based science to medical fields such as research, health monitoring or medical treatment
medtop:20000711 biotechnology The scientific manipulation of living organisms and biological processes for scientific, medical or agricultural purposes
medtop:20000715 mathematics The study of structure, space, change and number in abstract, often using symbolic logic and language, and including subjects such as geometry, algebra or trigonometry
medtop:20000717 natural science The sciences that deal with matter, energy and the physical world, including physics, biology, chemistry and astronomy
medtop:20000718 astronomy The study of celestial objects through direct observation and theoretical models
medtop:20000719 biology The study of the anatomy, behaviour, origin, physiology and other aspects of living organisms
medtop:20000720 botany The study of the physical and physiological structure, genetics, ecology and other aspects of plants
medtop:20000721 genetics The study of genes in living organisms, and of their role in heredity, development or genetic adaptation
medtop:20000722 palaeontology The study of prehistoric life forms, geological periods and fossils
medtop:20000723 physiology The study of the vital processes, internal organs or functional mechanisms of living organisms
medtop:20000724 zoology The study of the biology, physiology, development, behaviour or other aspects of animals
medtop:20000725 chemistry The study of the composition and properties of matter on the scale of atoms and molecules, and of the reactions between compounds
medtop:20000726 cosmology The study of the origin, evolution, organisation and structure of the universe
medtop:20000727 geology The study of Earth's physical processes, material structures and its properties
medtop:20000728 horticulture The study and art of plant cultivation, including landscape and garden design and plant conservation
medtop:20000729 marine science The study of living organisms and environments in saltwater ecosystems
medtop:20000730 meteorology The study of atmospheric chemistry and physics, with a focus on weather forecasting
medtop:20000731 physics The study of the movement and structure of matter, and how it relates to energy
medtop:20000732 electromagnetism The study of the physical interactions between electrically charged particles and magnetic fields
medtop:20000733 nuclear physics The study of the structure and behaviour of atomic nuclei
medtop:20000734 particle physics The study of the nature, properties and interactions of the elementary particles that constitute matter
medtop:20000741 scientific institution Institution that carries out or governs scientific work, such as the National Academy of Arts and Sciences
medtop:20000735 scientific research The scientific and methodical investigation of events, procedures and interactions to explain why they occur, or to find solutions for problems
medtop:20000737 medical research Investigation conducted in the fields of health and medicine, such as genetic studies, disease research or pharmaceutical drug trials
medtop:20000738 scientific exploration Land, sea or space journeys undertaken to discover new information
medtop:20000739 space exploration The scientific exploration of outer space through manned and unmanned missions
medtop:20000736 scientific innovation The development or creation of new scientific or technological products or processes, such as biotech or artificial intelligence applications, robotic limbs or nanoscale cameras
medtop:20000740 scientific publication Academic research findings published in a journal, book or thesis
medtop:20000755 scientific standards Nationally or internationally established rules governing scientific and technological study and development, such as calibration standards for scientific tools or equipment
medtop:20000742 social sciences The study of human society in such aspects as linguistics, anthropology, economics or sociology
medtop:20000743 anthropology The study of human behaviour and social interactions across time
medtop:20000744 archaeology The study of human activity throughout time and cultural history, using artefacts left behind by ancient peoples
medtop:20000745 economics The study of the laws and principles of economies, such as the production and distribution of goods and services
medtop:20000746 geography The study of the physical features of the surface of Earth and its political divisions
medtop:20000747 history The study of human events of the past
medtop:20000748 information science The study and practice of collecting, classifying, storing, retrieving and disseminating information
medtop:20000750 linguistics The study of all aspects of human language such as syntax, phonetics, written and spoken forms and variations over time
medtop:20000751 philosophy The study of the principles and fundamental questions about matters such as the mind, reason, morality or values
medtop:20000752 political science The study of the principles of political and governmental systems, political thought and practices
medtop:20000753 psychology The study of the human mind, mental characteristics and emotional processes
medtop:20000754 sociology The study of human social organisation, social relationships and societal changes
medtop:20000749 study of law The study of legal systems and the philosophy of law
medtop:20000756 technology and engineering The study and practice of industrial or applied sciences such as physics, hydrodynamics or thermodynamics
medtop:20000757 aerospace engineering The study, design, development and construction of aircraft, spacecraft and missile systems
medtop:20000758 rocketry The study, design, development and construction of rockets
medtop:20000759 agricultural technology The study and development of techniques and machinery to improve agricultural management and productivity
medtop:20000760 civil engineering The study, design, development and construction of structures such as buildings, bridges, tunnels, irrigation and sewage systems, streets or railroads
medtop:20000761 electronic engineering The study, design, development and application of systems built on the exchange of electrical charges, such as consumer devices, communications systems or industrial computers
medtop:20000762 identification technology The study, development, application and ethical considerations of technological methods for identifying products, animals or people; including radio frequency, biometrics or face recognition
medtop:20000763 information technology and computer science The study and design of computer systems, software and networks
medtop:20001298 artificial intelligence An attempt to let computers simulate how the human brain works by applying statistical, heuristic or machine learning methods and algorithms to large datasets. Enables a long range of automatic functions like image recognition and categorisation.
medtop:20000764 materials science The study of the composition, structure and properties of materials for their use in industry and manufacturing
medtop:20000716 mechanical engineering The study and application of the design, construction and operation of mechanical systems
medtop:20000765 micro science The study of and technologies built at a microscopic scale, such as microbiology or microcomputing
medtop:20000766 nanotechnology Manipulating objects at the molecular scale
medtop:14000000 society The concerns, issues, affairs and institutions relevant to human social interactions, problems and welfare, such as poverty, human rights and family planning
medtop:20000768 communities A group of individuals actively sharing a common value or interest
medtop:20001360 fraternal and community group Social organisations whose members freely associate for a mutually beneficial purpose such as for social, professional or honorary principles. Groups include Rotary clubs, Lions clubs or Freemasons.
medtop:20000769 social networking Social interactions, either in person or online, intended to share information and build relationships around common interests
medtop:20000770 demographics The study of human populations and their characteristics, for example statistics or trends around aging populations in a particular geographic region
medtop:20000774 population and census The official count of people living in a given geopolitical area, usually carried out by a governmental body
medtop:20000775 discrimination Unfair treatment of, or policies or practices against, individuals or groups of people on the basis of real or perceived membership in a group, such as race, sexual orientation, political or religious beliefs, age or height
medtop:20000776 ageism Discrimination against individuals or groups of people on the basis of age
medtop:20000777 racism Discrimination against individuals or groups of people on the basis of race
medtop:20000778 religious discrimination Unfair treatment of individuals or groups of people on the basis of their religious belief
medtop:20000779 sexism Discrimination against individuals or groups of people, usually women, on the basis of gender
medtop:20001373 diversity, equity and inclusion Efforts that seeks to promote the fair treatment and full participation of groups of people who have historically been underrepresented or subject to discrimination on the basis of identity or disability
medtop:20000772 emigration Leaving one's country of residence to settle permanently elsewhere
medtop:20000780 family A group of people related genetically or by a legal bond, or who consider themselves part of a familial unit regardless of genetic or legal status
medtop:20000782 Dating and Relationships The development of an intimate connection between individuals, through various forms of activities enjoyed together, often leading to a legal or permanent union such as marriage
medtop:20000781 adoption The legal process of transferring parental rights to someone other than a person's birth parents, that person usually being a child
medtop:20000783 divorce The process by which a marriage is legally dissolved
medtop:20000784 family planning Services and education aimed at informing individual decisions about reproduction, such as fertility, in vitro fertilisation, contraception or abortion
medtop:20000785 abortion The intentional termination of a pregnancy for elective or medical reasons
medtop:20001274 contraception A method or device used to prevent pregnancy
medtop:20000786 marriage The legal or socially recognised union of individuals, which establishes rights and obligations between them
medtop:20000787 parenting The caring for and support of a child's physical, emotional, developmental and social needs from birth to adulthood
medtop:20001359 pregnancy and childbirth Social and medical issues around pregnancy and giving birth including, doulas and midwives, obstetrics and medical concerns
medtop:20000771 immigration The movement of individuals or groups of people from one country to another
medtop:20000773 illegal immigration The movement of individuals or groups of people from one country to another without legal authorisation from the destination country
medtop:20000788 mankind Human beings taken as a whole, or described as members of particular groups such as teenagers, women, or people with disabilities
medtop:20000792 LGBTQ People who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender or queer
medtop:20000789 adults People above an age set by law that entitles them to full liability and certain privileges such as the legal right to drink alcoholic beverages and to vote
medtop:20000790 children Young people, usually pre-pubescent, who are legally considered minors and are in a guardianship relationship with adults
medtop:20000791 disabilities Physical or mental conditions that limit a person's movements, senses, or activities
medtop:20000793 gender The classification of individuals as male, female, or a non-binary designation
medtop:20001288 indigenous people People who are the original owners and caretakers of a given region, also known as native peoples, first peoples or aboriginal peoples, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonised the area more recently
medtop:20000794 infants Very young people, usually defined as being just born up to the age of two
medtop:20001328 men People who identify as male, focusing on the group as a demographic, and masculinity
medtop:20000795 national or ethnic minority Groups of people that form a minority on an ethnic or national basis, and their status or issues relating to the majority
medtop:20000796 (retired) nuclear radiation victims (retired) Includes antinuclear movements and compensation for atomic blast victims. (retired)
medtop:20000797 senior citizens People having passed the age of retirement
medtop:20000798 teenagers Young people between the ages that describe childhood and adulthood
medtop:20001327 women People who identify as female, focusing on the group as a demographic, and accomplishments, such as the first woman to achieve a milestone or serve in a role
medtop:20000799 social condition The circumstances or state of affairs affecting a person's life, welfare and relations with others in a society
medtop:20000800 homelessness The social condition defined by lack of permanent residence, living in shelters or on streets, and the issues and problems associated with it
medtop:20000801 poverty The lack of sufficient resources and means to provide basic needs such as food, clothing or shelter for oneself and one's family
medtop:20000802 social problem Issues related to human rights, human welfare and other areas of societal concern
medtop:20000803 abusive behaviour Actions that intentionally harm another person or people, often on an ongoing basis, such as psychological or mental abuse, negligence, physical or sexual abuse and torture
medtop:20000804 addiction The habitual and compulsive use of substances such as alcohol or drugs, or behaviour such as gambling, gaming or sex, often causing detrimental effects on the body, brain, and relationships with others
medtop:20001284 bullying Taking actions meant to harm, coerce and intimidate another person perceived as vulnerable. These actions can be taken in person or online.
medtop:20000805 juvenile delinquency Unlawful conduct perpetrated by minors, often on a repeated basis
medtop:20000806 prostitution The business of engaging in sexual activity in exchange for payment
medtop:20001193 sexual misconduct Unwanted behaviour of a sexual nature that is of lesser offense than felony sexual assault, particularly when behavior occurs in a normally non-sexual situation, or where there is some aspect of personal power or authority involved
medtop:20000807 slavery The ownership of people as property, and the involuntary servitude of those people to their owners, which includes unpaid labour and coerced actions
medtop:20000808 values A person's or group's principles or standards of behaviour, which guide their way of living and choices made
medtop:20000809 (retired) corrupt practices (retired) Any action which is harmful to others (retired)
medtop:20000810 death and dying Social, medical and mental health issues relating to people at the end of their lives
medtop:20000811 euthanasia The practice of humanely ending the life of a person suffering from a terminal illness
medtop:20000812 assisted suicide The practice of assisting a person suffering from a terminal illness in the process of suicide, often with a physician's oversight
medtop:20000813 suicide The intentional taking of one's own life
medtop:20000814 ethics The moral values and standards that define right and wrong actions or decisions
medtop:20000815 pornography The depiction of sexually explicit acts in various media renditions, such as video or photos, often considered obscene or immoral
medtop:20000816 sexual behaviour The manner in which people express their sexuality in physical acts
medtop:20000817 welfare Help for those in need of food, housing, health and other services
medtop:20000818 charity The voluntary giving of money, food or other necessities to those in need
medtop:20001317 child care Services and facilities that look after children while their parents are working or away, including daycare centres and programmes
medtop:20001232 elderly care The long-term care of the elderly provided by residential institutions or by paid daily help in the home
medtop:20000819 long-term care Services provided on an extended and ongoing basis to patients suffering from chronic illness or disability
medtop:20001290 public housing Housing that is owned or managed by a government or nonprofit organisation and rented to tenants with the aim of making housing affordable. Eligibility for such housing arrangements varies country to country.
medtop:20000820 social services Social programmes, usually publicly sponsored, aimed at promoting people's welfare, such as housing, health care or education services
medtop:15000000 sport Competitive activity or skill that involves physical and/or mental effort and organisations and bodies involved in these activities
medtop:20000822 competition discipline Different types of sport which can be executed in competitions
medtop:20001329 3x3 basketball A variation of basketball played three a side on one basketball hoop
medtop:20000823 American football Team ball game that opposes two teams of 11 that have offence and defence sections. Each offence attempts to move an oval ball down the 120 yards long field. Points are scored by advancing the ball into the opposing team s end zone.
medtop:20000846 Australian rules football A form of football played by two teams of 18 competing on a pitch by running with and passing an oval ball. Points are scored by moving the ball between goal posts. Governed by the Australian Football League.
medtop:20000876 Canadian football Team ball game that opposes two teams of 12 that have offence and defence sections. Each offence attempts to move an oval ball down the 150 yards long field. Points are scored by advancing the ball into the opposing team s end zone.
medtop:20000939 Gaelic football A form of football played by two teams of 15 competing on a pitch by running with, kicking and passing a spherical ball. Points are scored by moving the ball between goal posts. Governed by the Gaelic Athletic Association.
medtop:20000968 Jai Alai (Pelota) A fast ball play using either the bare hand or a wicker scoop in an arena of walls of different outlay and size
medtop:20000824 archery Archers use bows and arrows to aim at targets 1.22 metres in diameter which are on average 70 metres distant.
medtop:20000825 crossbow shooting Shooting with crossbow on targets from different distances
medtop:20000826 longbow Shooting with longbow on targets from different distances. The competition is held outdoors on an open (flat) field.
medtop:20001286 arm wrestling A form of wrestling in which two participants grapple arm-to-arm
medtop:20001175 artistic swimming A sport in which swimmers, in solo, duet or team configurations, perform coordinated or identical movements in time to music. They are judged and are awarded points for body position, control, and the degree of difficulty of the moves.
medtop:20001081 synchronised free routine In the free programme, music, movements and their order of execution are not restricted.
medtop:20001082 synchronised technical routine Contestants obtain points from 10 sitting judges by executing certain synchronised artistic shapes and movements in the water. In the technical programme, competitors must execute a range of specific moves in a given order.
medtop:20000827 athletics Competitions involving foot races, jumping and throwing which can be on a track inside a stadium or on outside roads
medtop:20000828 cross-country run Competitors run over rough ground and not on a track
medtop:20000829 decathlon Individual men's competition which involves accumulating points in 10 different disciplines over two days: 1st day - 100m, long-jump, shot-putt, high-jump, 400m. 2nd day - 110m hurdles, discus, pole-vault, javelin and 1,500 metres.
medtop:20000830 discus throw Competitors stand in a netted circle with a 2.50 metres diameter and with a turning motion attempt to throw a discus weighing 2kg for men and 1kg for women as far as possible
medtop:20000831 hammer throw Competitors throw a hammer consisting of a metal ball, chain and handle as far as they can from a netted circle which is 2.13 metres in diameter. The hammer weighs 7.26kg for men and 4kg for women
medtop:20000832 heptathlon Competition involving seven separate disciplines over two days. 1st day - 100m hurdles, high jump, shot put, 200 metres. 2nd day - long-jump, javelin, 800 metres
medtop:20000833 high jump Competitors build up speed over a short sprint and then jump as high as possible over a horizontal bar
medtop:20000834 hurdles A sprint running race where athletes jump over a series of upright frames
medtop:20000835 javelin throw Competitors in a specially-designated throwing area attempt to fling a spear-like javelin as far as possible. The javelin weighs 800 grams for men and 600 grams for women.
medtop:20000836 long distance run A running race at distances for more than 1500 metres
medtop:20000837 long jump Competitors build up speed over a short sprint and then jump in one leap as far as possible
medtop:20000838 middle distance run A running race at distances for more than 400 metres and up to and including 1500 metres
medtop:20000839 pentathlon Only indoor, 60m hurdles, high jump, shot put, long jump, 800 m
medtop:20000840 pole vault Competitors use a flexible pole to propel themselves feet-first into the air and clear a bar which is raised higher at each round of jumps.
medtop:20000841 race walking A race requiring the competitor to have always one foot on the ground
medtop:20000842 relay run A team of athletes run a relay over identical distances
medtop:20000843 shot put Competitors stand in a circle with a 2.13 metres diameter and attempt to throw a metal ball weighing 7.26 kg for men and 4kg for women as far as possible. The longest throw wins.
medtop:20000844 sprint run A running race at distances of up to and including 400 metres
medtop:20001242 steeplechase (athletics) Obstacle race in athletics including barriers and water jumps
medtop:20000845 triple jump Competitors build up speed over a short sprint and then attempt to jump as far forward as they can using a hop, skip and a jump technique.
medtop:20000847 badminton Two players or two teams of two compete by hitting a shuttlecock weighing approximately five grams over a high net. The aim for each player/team is to prevent the shuttlecock landing on their side of the court.
medtop:20000848 bandy Played outdoors on ice. The size of the ice rink is about the size of a soccer field. Skates like ice hockey. A small hard ball is used for playing. Players play with sticks, much like in ice hockey, but the sticks are shorter and more rounded than in ice
medtop:20000849 baseball A game between two teams of nine played on an enclosed ground. The team which scores the most points wins. A point is scored when a player runs around the ground marked out by four bases. To do this he has to hit the ball thrown at him by a rival player.
medtop:20000850 rubberball baseball Sometimes called ''soft baseball,'' the game is played with a rubber baseball of varying degrees of hardness depending upon the age and level of the players.
medtop:20000851 basketball Game played between two teams of five - points are scored by placing the large inflated ball into a net fixed on a ring 3.05m above the ground.
medtop:20000852 biathlon A combination of cross-country skiing and target shooting on a 12.5 K course in a pursuit format.
medtop:20000853 billiards A cue sport with balls on a table without a specific order to play them
medtop:20000854 bobsleigh One, two or four people racing down a course in a sled that consists of a main hull, a frame, two axles and sets of runners. The total time of all heats in a competition is added together to determine the winner.
medtop:20001240 bodybuilding Competitions where participants perform specific poses to display their muscles that have been strengthened and enlarged through strenuous exercise. Competitors are judged based on criteria such as symmetry, muscularity and conditioning.
medtop:20000855 boules Collective name of a number of games where the common goal is to move the competitor's balls as close to a small target ball as possible, played on a grass or sand surface. Balls are thrown (as in petanque and boules) or rolled (as in lawn bowls or bocce).
medtop:20000856 boxing Combat sport in which two men/women fight using only their fists covered by padded gloves in a square ring measuring 6m a side. The fight is usually split into 12 rounds of three minutes each.
medtop:20000857 (retired) bantamweight (boxing) (retired) Weight category which varies according to the federation or the Olympic Games (retired)
medtop:20000858 (retired) cruiserweight (boxing) (retired) Weight category which varies according to the federation or the Olympic Games (retired)
medtop:20000859 (retired) featherweight (boxing) (retired) Weight category which varies according to the federation or the Olympic Games (retired)
medtop:20000860 (retired) flyweight (boxing) (retired) Weight category which varies according to the federation or the Olympic Games (retired)
medtop:20000861 (retired) heavyweight (boxing) (retired) Weight category which varies according to the federation or the Olympic Games (retired)
medtop:20000862 (retired) light flyweight (boxing) (retired) Weight category which varies according to the federation or the Olympic Games (retired)
medtop:20000863 (retired) light-heavyweight (boxing) (retired) Weight category which varies according to the federation or the Olympic Games (retired)
medtop:20000864 (retired) light-middleweight (boxing) (retired) Weight category which varies according to the federation or the Olympic Games (retired)
medtop:20000865 (retired) light-welterweight (boxing) (retired) Weight category which varies according to the federation or the Olympic Games (retired)
medtop:20000866 (retired) lightweight (boxing) (retired) Weight category which varies according to the federation or the Olympic Games (retired)
medtop:20000867 (retired) middleweight (boxing) (retired) Weight category which varies according to the federation or the Olympic Games (retired)
medtop:20000868 (retired) straw weight (boxing) (retired) Weight category which varies according to the federation or the Olympic Games (retired)
medtop:20000869 (retired) super-bantamweight (boxing) (retired) Weight category which varies according to the federation or the Olympic Games (retired)
medtop:20000870 (retired) super-featherweight (boxing) (retired) Weight category which varies according to the federation or the Olympic Games (retired)
medtop:20000871 (retired) super-flyweight (boxing) (retired) Weight category which varies according to the federation or the Olympic Games (retired)
medtop:20000872 (retired) super-heavyweight (boxing) (retired) Weight category which varies according to the federation or the Olympic Games (retired)
medtop:20000873 (retired) super-middleweight (boxing) (retired) Weight category which varies according to the federation or the Olympic Games (retired)
medtop:20000874 (retired) welterweight (boxing) (retired) Weight category which varies according to the federation or the Olympic Games (retired)
medtop:20000875 bullfighting Classical contest pitting man against the bull
medtop:20001330 canoe slalom Competitors navigate a canoe or a kayak on a white-water course, passing through a combination of upstream and downstream gates on river rapids in the fastest time possible
medtop:20001331 canoe sprint Taking place on a flatwater course, multiple canoes take off at once and race each other to the finish
medtop:20000877 canoeing Competition involving canoes which are generally kneeled and paddled with a single-bladed paddle
medtop:20000878 (retired) C1 (canoeing) (retired) One-seater canoe (open boat with competitor using a single bladed paddle (retired)
medtop:20000879 (retired) C2 (canoeing) (retired) Two-seater canoe (open boat) - competitors use a single bladed paddle (retired)
medtop:20000880 (retired) C4 (canoeing) (retired) Four-seater canoe (open boat) with each competitor using a single bladed paddle (retired)
medtop:20000881 (retired) canoe sailing (retired) A race involving a canoe equipped with a sail. (retired)
medtop:20000882 (retired) pontoniering (retired) Team sport, military tradition, similar to canoe regatta, in boats (retired)
medtop:20000883 casting (fishing) Using fishing equipment to hit a target and score points
medtop:20001309 cheerleading Cheer squads competing against each other to perform a routine that includes stunts, jumps and tumbling set to music. Squads are judged on difficulty and execution.
medtop:20001154 chess Competition between two players using a chequered board with 16 pieces to each side, each with specific ranges of movement depending on their identity
medtop:20000911 competitive dancing Dancing competition where competitors are judged on technique and interpretation.
medtop:20001379 breaking (breakdance) Dancing competition featuring an urban dance style that originated in the United States in the 1970s with roots in hip-hop culture and characterised by acrobatic movements, stylised footwork, and the key role played by the DJ and the MC during battles
medtop:20000888 cricket Ball sport involving two teams of 11 players, balls, bats and wickets. The aim is to score as many runs as possible, and to get the opposing team 'out'. A 'run' involves a player running between two wickets. The opposing team try to get their rivals 'out'
medtop:20000889 croquet Using mallets to hit a ball through hoops
medtop:20000890 curling A game played on ice with large flat round stones. A player throws the stone, aiming at a target. Teammates of the player who has thrown the stone can sweep the ice in front of the stone to help smooth its path towards the target.
medtop:20000891 icestock sport Similar to curling, played on targets on ice, different stones with straight handle and different rules, played in alpine countries
medtop:20000892 cycling A race over a given distance on bicycles.
medtop:20000901 (retired) Keirin (retired) Sprint between six cyclists where a pacemaker on a moped gradually increases the pace over the first 1400m. When the pacemaker leaves the track the race develops into a sprint finish over the final 6-700m. (retired)
medtop:20000902 (retired) Madison race (retired) A points race by teams comprising two cyclists in relay-format (retired)
medtop:20000893 artistic cycling Individual or teams on one or two bicycles in an arena. Points are awarded by a jury.
medtop:20000894 (retired) bi-crossing (retired) A race where competitors have to cover a circuit with obstacles as quickly as possible. (retired)
medtop:20001332 bmx freestyle Riders are given a fixed time to perform acrobatics tricks and skills, with tricks scored on multiple aspects including difficulty, originality, execution, height and creativity
medtop:20000895 bmx racing Bicycle racing in with inline start and various obstacles over off-road circuits.
medtop:20000896 cycle ball Competitive team sport using bicycles. One team against another with two persons per team. The aim is for competitors to move the ball using the front and rear wheels without letting their feet touch the ground.
medtop:20000897 (retired) cycle sprint race (retired) Track cycling race between two cyclists over two or three laps, with a timed sprint finish over the last 200m (retired)
medtop:20000906 (retired) cycling staging race (retired) Race disputed by teams with the classifications determined by the combined times over a day (retired)
medtop:20000898 (retired) cyclo-cross (retired) Staged on various surfaces - earth, grass, sand or tarmac. (retired)
medtop:20000899 (retired) individual pursuit (cycling) (retired) Track cycling event where two cyclists set off from midway down opposite straights and try to make up the gap between them (retired)
medtop:20000900 (retired) individual time trial (cycling) (retired) A race or stage against the clock with each cyclist setting off individually (retired)
medtop:20000903 mountain biking All-terrain, off-road bicycle riding requiring endurance and specially adapted mountain bikes
medtop:20000904 (retired) points race (cycling) (retired) Cyclists aim to complete the highest number of laps. Bonus points are picked up in intermediate sprints held every 2500m (retired)
medtop:20000905 (retired) road cycling (retired) Road race with all the competitor starting en masse. (retired)
medtop:20000908 (retired) road cycling team pursuit (retired) Track cycle event where two teams set off from midway down opposite straights and try to make up the gap between them (retired)
medtop:20000907 (retired) team cycle sprint (retired) A track race where two teams race against each other, starting on opposite sides of the track, following the first lap the first rider pulls away, leaving the second rider to lead the next lap, who then does the same at the last lap, leaving the third rider to finish the race. The team with the fastest time is the winner. (retired)
medtop:20000909 (retired) team time trial (cycling) (retired) Teams of cyclists race against the clock (retired)
medtop:20000910 (retired) track race (cycling) (retired) A race staged on a track in a velodrome (retired)
medtop:20000912 darts The sport in which small darts are thrown at a dartboard, a circular target divided into numbered sections.
medtop:20000913 diving Competitors dive off a fixed or spring board and are assessed by seven judges giving marks up to ten for their acrobatic moves.
medtop:20000914 platform diving Divers take off from a high platform
medtop:20000915 springboard diving Divers dive from a high springboard.
medtop:20000916 synchronised diving Two competitors from the same team dive off at the same time from separate platforms or springboards. As well as being judged on the standard criteria they are also awarded marks for synchronisation.
medtop:20000919 dog racing Dogs racing around a track
medtop:20000921 (retired) dog sled racing (retired) Race with dogs harnessed to a sled (retired)
medtop:20000920 (retired) oval track dog racing (retired) Pursuing an artificial rabbit around an oval track (retired)
medtop:20000922 duathlon An athletic event involving running and cycling
medtop:20001183 eSports Competitions involving video games played by professional gamers
medtop:20000923 equestrian Horse-based sport disciplines governed by the International Federation for Equestrian Sports, such as dressage, eventing, show jumping and vaulting
medtop:20000924 (retired) cross-country horse riding (retired) Equestrian event held on a designated circuit in the countryside featuring artificial and natural obstacles. (retired)
medtop:20000925 (retired) dressage (retired) A rider is judged on a series of moves at three different paces - walk, trot and gallop. (retired)
medtop:20000928 (retired) horse driving (retired) Equestrian events involving horses being driven in harness, single vehicle around a course. (retired)
medtop:20000926 (retired) horse jumping (retired) A rider and horse attempt to jump a series of obstacles in an enclosed arena against the clock. (retired)
medtop:20000927 (retired) three day eventing (retired) Equestrian event involving three disciplines - Dressage, cross-country and show jumping (retired)
medtop:20000929 fencing Combat sport using a sword or foil.
medtop:20000930 (retired) epee (retired) Category of fencing using a weapon with a triangular cross-section blade and a large bell guard (retired)
medtop:20000931 (retired) foil (retired) Category of fencing using a weapon with a rectangular cross-section blade and a small bell guard (retired)
medtop:20000932 (retired) sabre (retired) A fencing weapon with a flat blade and knuckle guard used with cutting or thrusting moves (retired)
medtop:20000933 field hockey A ball sport involving two teams of 11 players using curved sticks. The aim is to score as many goals as possible.
medtop:20000934 figure skating To obtain the best marks possible from nine judges who award scores after two prepared sections - both skated to music - during which competitors must attempt to achieve the greatest possible harmony between artistic flair and technical precision.
medtop:20000935 (retired) ice dance (retired) Takes place over three days with, in order, two compulsory dances, the original dance (2min 30sec) and the free dance (4min). (retired)
medtop:20000936 fist ball Men's team sport similar to volleyball (with a much lower net) executed mainly in gymnastics clubs
medtop:20000937 floorball Played indoors in a court the size of a basketball court. 6 players per team, of which one is a goalkeeper. He/she operates kneeling but there is no goal-stick like in ice hockey. The players use plastic clubs and a light plastic ball to pass and shot goal
medtop:20000938 flying disc A group of events all played with a flying plastic disc. The exact regulation for the disc is different in different events but it has to be unbroken of solid plastic and a production model with no modification. Flying disc is sometimes called Frisbee.
medtop:20001335 football 5-a-side A variation of association football in which each team fields five players and play is on a smaller pitch. An official Summer Paralympics sport.
medtop:20001336 goalball A team sport for athletes with a vision impairment, using a ball containing bells
medtop:20000940 golf A game to hit a small hard ball with different clubs around a course of typically 18 holes varying in distance and during a round. The object, depending on the scoring formulae, is to make the fewest strokes possible
medtop:20000941 mini golf A game where small hard balls must be holed on an artificial course in as few strokes from the club as possible
medtop:20000942 gymnastics A sport consisting of a variety of disciplines in which gymnasts perform artistic and acrobatic moves using different apparatus.
medtop:20001152 artistic gymnastics Gymnasts perform artistic and acrobatic moves on different apparatus. There are 6 events for men and 4 for women
medtop:20000944 (retired) beam (artistic gymnastics) (retired) Gymnasts perform leaps and flips from the much feared balance beam just 10 cm wide. (retired)
medtop:20000946 (retired) floor exercise (artistic gymnastics) (retired) A gymnastics floor exercise on a 12m/sq matt. (retired)
medtop:20000948 (retired) horizontal bar (artistic gymnastics) (retired) Gymnasts turn, spin and perform pirouettes around the horizontal bar. (retired)
medtop:20000949 (retired) parallel bars (artistic gymnastics) (retired) Gymnasts swing and turn with guile and grace around the parallel bars. (retired)
medtop:20000950 (retired) pommel horse (artistic gymnastics) (retired) Gymnasts perform an uninterrupted swing motion over a handled horse using balance and strength (retired)
medtop:20000953 (retired) rings (artistic gymnastics) (retired) Gymnasts perform feats of balance and strength from two suspended rings. (retired)
medtop:20000956 (retired) uneven bars (artistic gymnastics) (retired) Gymnasts run through an airborne routine swinging around and between the uneven bars. (retired)
medtop:20000957 (retired) vault (artistic gymnastics) (retired) Gymnasts propel themselves by jumping on a trampoline after running quickly down a 25m lane (retired)
medtop:20000951 rhythmic gymnastics Mixture of dance and gymnastic moves
medtop:20000943 (retired) ball (rhythmic gymnastics) (retired) An exercise based on suppleness of the body using a ball. (retired)
medtop:20000945 (retired) clubs (rhythmic gymnastics) (retired) Dance and gymnastic moves whilst juggling clubs. (retired)
medtop:20000947 (retired) hoop (rhythmic gymnastics) (retired) A hoop is rolled and thrown whilst performing a dance routine. (retired)
medtop:20000952 (retired) ribbon (rhythmic gymnastics) (retired) Gymnasts work through a pre-arranged routine whilst manipulating a spectacular length of ribbon. (retired)
medtop:20000954 (retired) rope (rhythmic gymnastics) (retired) Jump and figure movements are performed while a rope is manipulated. (retired)
medtop:20000955 trampoline Competitors perform complicated twists and turns whilst bouncing on the trampoline.
medtop:20000958 handball (team) A ball game using the hands contested by two teams of seven trying to throw the ball into the opponents goal.
medtop:20000959 hornuss Swiss team sport with 16 or 18 men per team. A rubber puck is hit towards the field of the adversary team which tries to hit the puck in the air with a wooden board thrown in the air
medtop:20000960 horse racing Mounted horse races.
medtop:20000961 (retired) flat racing (retired) A horse race over a flat course. (retired)
medtop:20000962 (retired) harness racing (retired) Horses hitched to a jockeyed buggy race round a flat course. Can be performed at a trotting gait or a pacing gait. (retired)
medtop:20000963 (retired) steeple chase (retired) A mounted horse race over at least eight classic obstacles, four of which must be different, such as the water jump, spruce fences, mud walls etc. (retired)
medtop:20000964 hurling A game played by two teams of fifteen each with a curved wooden stick called a hurley. The object is to score a goal by hitting the small ball between the opponents' goalposts either over the crossbar or under it into a net guarded by a goalkeeper.
medtop:20000965 ice hockey Two teams of six heavily padded skaters try and outscore each other by hitting a puck into the opponents goal.
medtop:20000966 sledge hockey Like ice hockey but instead of skates small sledges are used. Competitors move by pushing with the arms
medtop:20000967 (retired) inline skating (retired) Competitive sports using inline skates (retired)
medtop:20000978 kabaddi The attacking side scores by touching, and the side to guard scores by capturing. The attacker continues calling it 'kabaddi'.
medtop:20000979 kayaking Competition involving kayaks where the paddler sits with their legs facing forward using a double-bladed paddle
medtop:20000980 (retired) K1 (kayaking) (retired) An enclosed boat with the competitor sitting on a fixed seat for one person using a double bladed paddle (retired)
medtop:20000981 (retired) K2 (kayaking) (retired) An enclosed boat with the competitor sitting on a fixed seat for two people using double bladed paddles (retired)
medtop:20000982 (retired) K4 (kayaking) (retired) An enclosed boat with the competitor sitting on a fixed seat for four people using double bladed paddles (retired)
medtop:20001306 kiting Action sport where a person harnesses the power of the wind to propel themselves across water, land or snow on a board, snowboard or skis. Variations of the sport are called kiteboarding/kitesurfing, snowkiting or landkiting.
medtop:20000986 lacrosse Two teams of helmeted and padded players try and outscore each other using a netted stick and hard ball.
medtop:20000987 luge Luge (French word for sled) is competed in singles or doubles. The competitor(s) lay on their back on an open sled and race down a course. The competitor(s) and the sled must be in contact when passing the finishing line. The competitor can steer the sled
medtop:20000988 marathon A road race where competitors run 42.195km, generally through city streets
medtop:20001157 martial arts Martial arts are codified systems and traditions of combat practices, which are practiced for a variety of reasons: self-defence, competition, physical health and fitness, entertainment, as well as mental, physical, and spiritual development.
medtop:20001084 Taekwon-Do A martial art of Korean origin
medtop:20000969 judo A defensive martial art.
medtop:20000970 (retired) extra lightweight (judo) (retired) Up to 60kg for men and 48kg for women. (retired)
medtop:20000971 (retired) half-heavyweight (judo) (retired) Up to 100kg for men and 78kg for women. (retired)
medtop:20000972 (retired) half-lightweight (judo) (retired) Up to 73kg for men and 57kg for women. (retired)
medtop:20000973 (retired) half-middleweight (judo) (retired) Up to 81kg for men and 63kg for women (retired)
medtop:20000974 (retired) heavyweight (judo) (retired) Open but usually over 100kg for men and over 78kg for women (retired)
medtop:20000975 (retired) lightweight (judo) (retired) Up to 66kg for men and 52kg for women. (retired)
medtop:20000976 (retired) middleweight (judo) (retired) Up to 90kg for men and 70kg for women. (retired)
medtop:20000977 jukendo Japanese traditional martial art using a model rifle made of wood. 'Juken' means a rifle or gun with blade (bayonet)
medtop:20000983 karate A martial art where chops, punches, kicks and throws are used to defeat an opponent.
medtop:20000984 kendo Japanese traditional martial art using a bamboo sword, sometimes called Japanese fencing
medtop:20001310 kickboxing Stand-up combat sport based on kicking and punching an opponent
medtop:20001308 krav maga Fighting and self-defence sport that combines elements from aikido, boxing, judo, karate and wrestling
medtop:20000985 kyudo Japanese traditional martial art using a bamboo bow and arrows, sometimes called Japanese archery
medtop:20001231 mixed martial arts A full-contact combat sport using techniques from various combat sports and martial arts
medtop:20001009 naginata Japanese traditional martial art using a pole sword made of wood. 'Naginata' means a spear with a curved blade
medtop:20001311 sambo (martial art) Style of martial art originating in the Soviet Union that is recognised as a form of amateur wrestling
medtop:20001102 wushu Chinese traditional martial art
medtop:20000989 modern pentathlon The Modern Pentathlon comprises five events run over a single day in the following order: shooting, fencing, swimming, horse riding and running.
medtop:20000991 motor car racing Racing with cars
medtop:20000993 (retired) F3000 (retired) Using less powerful motors than the Formula One, designated construction teams race over varied circuits the world over in speed races for individual and team honours over a season. (retired)
medtop:20000994 (retired) Formula One (retired) Single cockpit car racing where 20 or so competitors race head to head over varied circuits around the world to win Grand Prix points in an individual and constructors championship (retired)
medtop:20000995 (retired) Indy Racing (retired) North American top range professional league speed racing over circuits. (retired)
medtop:20000992 (retired) endurance race (retired) Races for one or more drivers over a long and set distance or time (retired)
medtop:20000996 (retired) motor car rallycross (retired) Stage races over dirt tracks (retired)
medtop:20000997 (retired) motor car rallying (retired) A season of endurance races over closed circuits including dirt tracks, roads and even snowy conditions featuring specials using adapted road cars with a driver and co-pilot. (retired)
medtop:20000990 motorboat racing Racing with boats with engines
medtop:20000998 motorcycling Races with 2, 3 or 4 wheels vehicles with a saddle and handlebars
medtop:20001000 (retired) enduro (retired) A race of speed, endurance and regularity over varied surfaces such as through forests and on dirt tracks (retired)
medtop:20001001 (retired) grass-track (retired) A race competed on turf (retired)
medtop:20001002 (retired) moto-ball (retired) Team sport where drivers play a ball (retired)
medtop:20001003 (retired) moto-cross (retired) Raced over dirt tracks featuring severe mounds (retired)
medtop:20001004 (retired) motoGP (retired) Capacity class 1000ccm (retired)
medtop:20000999 (retired) motorcycle endurance (retired) A road race of consistency and endurance (retired)
medtop:20001005 (retired) motorcycle rallying (retired) Races run over regular roads (retired)
medtop:20001008 (retired) motorcycling trial (retired) A race of consistency and endurance over varied terrain (retired)
medtop:20001006 (retired) side-cars (retired) Of different engine sizes but attached to a side car featuring a passenger (retired)
medtop:20001007 (retired) speedway (retired) Race involving up to six riders competing over a flat oval track. Speedway motorcycles use only one gear and have no brakes (retired)
medtop:20000884 mountain climbing Moving up mountains using hands and feet
medtop:20000885 ice climbing Climbing of ice features such as icefalls and frozen cliffs
medtop:20000886 mountaineering Competitive alpine climbing
medtop:20001010 netball A woman's sport similar to basketball though without a board behind the basket
medtop:20001011 orienteering An individual time-trial over a route marked out by beacons. The competitor has to search out and find in a specific order. The contestant makes his way with the help of a compass and map
medtop:20001012 ski orienteering An individual ski time-trial over a route marked out by beacons, that the competitor has to search out and find in a specific order. The contestant makes his way with the help of a compass and map
medtop:20001305 padel Racquet sport typically played in doubles on an enclosed court
medtop:20001013 parachuting Jumping from an aeroplane using a parachute, competitions are precision landings, voltige, individual and team
medtop:20001014 polo With the aid of a mallet two teams of four horsemen try and knock a bamboo ball into the opponents goal over a pitch 250m long and 150m wide. The game is divided into 4, 6, or 8 time periods of 7min 30sec called chukkas.
medtop:20001015 pool A cue sport on a table with pockets, played with different numbers of balls
medtop:20001016 power boating Races between motor boats on rivers or lakes
medtop:20001281 racquetball A racquet sport similar to squash in which the ball must bounce once before being struck and with a greater area of in-bound play
medtop:20001282 ringette A team sport usually played on ice by skaters using a straight stick. Players pass and shoot a rubber ring in order to place it in the opponent's goal
medtop:20001333 road cycling Cycling events held on roads, including road races and time trials
medtop:20001017 rodeo A discipline where wild horses or bulls must be mounted and mastered
medtop:20001018 bareback bronc Rodeo discipline
medtop:20001019 barrel racing Rodeo discipline
medtop:20001020 bull riding Rodeo discipline
medtop:20001021 bulldogging Rodeo discipline
medtop:20001022 calf roping Rodeo discipline
medtop:20001023 goat roping Rodeo discipline
medtop:20001024 saddle bronc Rodeo discipline
medtop:20001155 roller sports Various competitions using wheeled equipment such as roller skates, inline skates, and skateboards.
medtop:20001025 roller hockey Team sport similar to ice hockey, executed on 4 wheel roller skates with sticks and a ball
medtop:20001156 skateboarding Competitions involving stunts and acrobatic feats performed on a skateboard using various ramps and other obstacles
medtop:20001026 rowing Boat racing usually on flat calm waters with boats for 1, 2, 4 or 8 rowers
medtop:20001032 (retired) coxed eight (retired) Eight person boats with just one oar each and with a team mate to give directions (retired)
medtop:20001027 (retired) coxed four (retired) Four person boats with just one oar each and with a team mate to give directions (retired)
medtop:20001028 (retired) coxed pair (retired) Two person boats with just one oar each and with a team mate to give directions (retired)
medtop:20001029 (retired) coxless four (retired) Four person boats with just one oar each and without a team mate to give directions (retired)
medtop:20001030 (retired) coxless pair (retired) Two person boats with just one oar each and without a team mate to give directions (retired)
medtop:20001031 (retired) double sculls (retired) Two person boats with two oars each (retired)
medtop:20001033 (retired) quadruple sculls (retired) Four person boats with two oars each and without a team mate to give directions (retired)
medtop:20001034 (retired) single sculls (retired) Single person boats with two oars (retired)
medtop:20001176 rugby A form of football developed in Rugby (England) played with an oval ball that may be kicked, carried and passed from hand to hand. Points are scored when one team carries the ball over the other team's goal line or kicks the ball between two goal posts.
medtop:20001035 rugby league A type of rugby where two teams of 13 compete on a pitch by running with and passing an oval ball. Points are scored by touching down the ball behind the goal line or kicking it between goal posts. Governed by Rugby League International Federation.
medtop:20001037 rugby sevens A type of rugby union where two teams of 7 compete on a pitch by running with and passing an oval ball. Points are scored by touching down the ball behind the goal line or kicking it between goal posts. Governed by the World Rugby organization.
medtop:20001036 rugby union A type of rugby where two teams of 15 compete on a pitch by running with and passing an oval ball. Points are scored by touching down the ball behind the goal line or kicking it between goal posts. Governed by the World Rugby organization.
medtop:20001038 sailing Sailing boat racing over a route
medtop:20001040 (retired) dinghy (retired) Single hulled vessel without a fixed keel (retired)
medtop:20001041 (retired) keelboat (retired) Single hulled vessel with a fixed keel (retired)
medtop:20001039 (retired) multihull (retired) Sailing boats with multiple hulls (retired)
medtop:20001046 (retired) non-stop solo race (retired) Races either clockwise or anti clockwise around the globe without stopping at any ports between start and finish of race. (retired)
medtop:20001043 (retired) ocean sailing (retired) Sailing vessels across oceans as part of a competitive race. (retired)
medtop:20001044 (retired) round the world race (retired) Sailing vessels around the world as a race (retired)
medtop:20001042 (retired) sailing regatta (retired) Sailing event (retired)
medtop:20001045 (retired) solo ocean sailing (retired) Sailing oceans as an individual, as part of a race. (retired)
medtop:20001047 sepak takraw A game like volleyball where hands must not be used, using a ball made of rattan
medtop:20001048 shinty A ball game involving 2 teams with curved sticks called camans. The object is to score goals by hitting the small leather ball through the goals.
medtop:20001151 short track speed skating Races competed by four or more skaters at a time on a small oval ice track
medtop:20001055 skeleton In skeleton the competitor lies on his/her stomach when racing down the course. The competitor must be on the sled when crossing the finishing line.
medtop:20001056 skiing A winter sport using different types of skis
medtop:20001150 Nordic combined Competition combining cross-country skiing and ski jumping
medtop:20001060 (retired) Nordic skiing (retired) Practiced in relatively-flat, snowy countryside and based on power and endurance. (retired)
medtop:20001153 Telemark skiing Races combining downhill and cross-country skiing events with unique Telemark techniques and equipment.
medtop:20001057 alpine skiing Racing downhill on snow-covered slopes using alpine techniques and equipment. The slopes contain intermediate gates which are spaced according to the discipline involved.
medtop:20001149 cross-country skiing Nordic ski race competed in relatively-flat, snowy countryside on narrow skis.
medtop:20001058 freestyle skiing Skiing competitions which, in contrast to alpine skiing, incorporate acrobatic moves and jumps. Events include aerials, halfpipe, slopestyle, ski cross, moguls and big air.
medtop:20001059 grass skiing Alpine skiing on roller skis and grass
medtop:20001061 ski jumping Competitors descend a snow covered elevated ramp on skis and try to fly off it as far as possible, receiving marks for distance, style of flight and landing
medtop:20001062 sky diving Parachuting competitions with long distance falls without using a parachute
medtop:20001063 snooker A cue sport with balls on a table to be potted in a specific order
medtop:20001064 snowboarding Practiced with a single board (rather than two skis)
medtop:20001065 soccer A form of football played by two teams competing on a pitch by kicking a spherical ball. Points are scored by kicking or heading the ball into a goal. Governed by the Fédération Internationale de Football Association
medtop:20001066 softball Similar to baseball but with a larger and softer ball, a thinner bat, shorter gaps between bases and less innings
medtop:20001067 speed skating Timed races competed by two or more skaters at a time on an oval ice track
medtop:20000887 sport climbing Sport climbing as a special category: individual competition, on an artificial wall with time measurement
medtop:20001049 sport shooting Precision sport using a hand gun, rifle or shotgun
medtop:20001054 (retired) clay pigeon shooting (retired) Shooting event which involves shooting at special flying targets, known as clay pigeons or clay targets (retired)
medtop:20001050 (retired) pistol shooting (retired) Shooting event using a pistol (retired)
medtop:20001051 (retired) rifle shooting (retired) Shooting event using a rifle (retired)
medtop:20001052 (retired) running target shooting (retired) Shooting event with an airgun and a target that moves sideways (retired)
medtop:20001053 (retired) shotgun shooting (retired) Shooting event using a shotgun (retired)
medtop:20001068 squash A racquet sport of strategy and endurance played by singles or doubles teams in a walled court with a small rubber ball
medtop:20001307 stand up paddleboarding (SUP) Water sport using a board and paddle to propel through the water while standing
medtop:20001069 sumo wrestling A combat sport of speed and rapidity with much ceremony where two contestants try to throw or slap a competitor out of a marked area. Generally practiced in Japan by large men.
medtop:20001070 surfing Water sport where contestants catch and ride waves upright on a surfboard
medtop:20001071 swimming A water sport where contestants swim as fast as possible in a given style and win races by being the first to touch home
medtop:20001072 (retired) backstroke (retired) Swimming style, on the back, legs move in flapping motion whilst arms propel the swimmer forward (retired)
medtop:20001073 (retired) breaststroke (retired) Swimming style , on the front, effecting forward and outward push movements with the arms and backward and outward pushes with the legs (retired)
medtop:20001074 (retired) butterfly swimming (retired) Swimming style , swum on the front with the shoulders remaining parallel to the water both arms moving in simultaneous windmill fashion, the legs remain together and are moved in a flapping motion. The most physical of all styles. (retired)
medtop:20001075 (retired) freestyle swimming (retired) Any swimming style may be employed, though front crawl is universally employed (retired)
medtop:20001077 marathon swimming A long distance open water swimming
medtop:20001076 (retired) medley swimming (retired) A combination of four different swimming styles in one race (retired)
medtop:20001078 (retired) relay freestyle swimming (retired) Team of swimmers swim a relay in the swimming style of their choice (retired)
medtop:20001079 (retired) relay medley swimming (retired) Team relay race involving a combination of four different swimming styles (retired)
medtop:20001080 (retired) short course swimming (retired) Races competed in a 25m length pool (retired)
medtop:20001083 table tennis A racquet sport for two or four (in doubles), who compete at a table divided by a net using a small bat to play a lightweight ball
medtop:20001086 ten pin bowling A game in which a player scores points by trying to knock down ten 'pins' using a ball - if unsuccessful the player has a second attempt. A game consists of ten frames.
medtop:20001085 tennis A sport where two players, four in doubles, equipped with a racket compete by hitting the ball over a net into the opponent's side of the court with the aim of putting it out of reach within the regulation lines, thus winning points.
medtop:20001334 track cycling Cycling competitions held on tracks, including sprint, team sprint, keirin, team pursuit, omnium and madison events
medtop:20001087 triathlon An endurance multi-sport where competitors first swim, then cycle and then run a road race. Distances vary according to the competition.
medtop:20001088 tug-of-war Two teams pulling against each other on a rope
medtop:20000918 underwater sports Competitive sports played under water
medtop:20001089 volleyball Two teams of six record points by hitting a ball over a net into the opponent's half of the court, keeping it in the air at all times. Points are won when opponents fail to return the ball.
medtop:20001090 beach volleyball Two teams of two players compete on a sand court. Unlike indoor volleyball, points are scored only when the serving team wins a rally or forces an error. The sand surface makes it more physically demanding than volleyball
medtop:20001091 water polo Played in a pool between two teams of 7, who must stay afloat and can only use one hand to pass the ball or swim with it before trying to throw it into the opponents net to score goals.
medtop:20001092 water skiing On one or two skis contestants are pulled by a power boat along the water's surface
medtop:20001093 weightlifting and powerlifting A strength test where competitors lift as heavy a weight as possible
medtop:20001094 (retired) clean and jerk (weightlifting) (retired) The bar is first lifted to the shoulders and then jerk it above the head and keep it there while maintaining straight legs (retired)
medtop:20001095 (retired) powerlifting (retired) A strength test where competitors lift as heavy a weight as possible (retired)
medtop:20001096 (retired) snatch (weightlifting) (retired) The bar must be lifted from floor to above the head in one movement (retired)
medtop:20001097 windsurfing Contestants must complete a marked out course as fast as possible on a windsurf board
medtop:20001098 wrestling Combat sport where each wrestler attempts to win over his adversary, by holding both shoulders on the ground (fall) long enough to be in control. Points can also be decisive.
medtop:20001101 Swiss wrestling Traditional Swiss sport similar to wrestling with specific rules
medtop:20001099 freestyle wrestling A style where leg holds are allowed
medtop:20001100 greco-roman A style where the only holds allowed are those between the head and the belt
medtop:20001103 disciplinary action in sport Actions, including fines and suspensions levied by sports organisations and teams
medtop:20001104 drug use in sport Drug use associated with sport activities, including doping, abuse, testing and permitted medical uses
medtop:20001105 (retired) drug abuse in sport (retired) Using drugs to improve competitiveness in sports (retired)
medtop:20001106 (retired) drug testing in sport (retired) Means and ways to check the use of drugs in sports (retired)
medtop:20001107 (retired) medical drug use in sport (retired) Use of drugs for medical reasons as permitted by sport regulators (retired)
medtop:20001301 sport achievement Records or honours earned by athletes for their performance
medtop:20001304 sports honour Honour given to a player for achievements over a career, season or single event, unrelated to event outcome, usually awarded by a panel of judges or a popular vote. Examples include player of the game, most valuable player award or hall of fame induction.
medtop:20001303 sports medal and trophy Award given to an athlete or team for placing in a sports competition, such as a gold medal at the Olympics or the Stanley Cup in ice hockey
medtop:20001302 sports record The best performance to date by an athlete or team in a sport discipline
medtop:20001108 sport event An event featuring one or more sport competitions
medtop:20001177 Olympic Games Games organised by the International Olympic Committee and held each 4 years in summer or winter.
medtop:20001178 Paralympic Games Games for disabled athletes organised by the International Paralympic Committee and held each 4 years in winter or summer
medtop:20001109 (retired) continental championship (retired) A competition where individuals or teams from countries from one continent may participate. Called a *Championship* (retired)
medtop:20001110 (retired) continental cup (retired) A competition where individuals or teams from countries from one continent may participate. Called a *Cup* (retired)
medtop:20001111 (retired) continental games (retired) A competition where individuals or teams from countries from one continent may participate. Called *Games* (retired)
medtop:20001343 final game Single game that determines the winner of a championship, such as the Super Bowl or Champions League Final
medtop:20001112 (retired) international championship (retired) A competition where individuals or teams from different countries may participate. Called a *Championship* (retired)
medtop:20001113 (retired) international cup (retired) A competition where individuals or teams from different countries may participate. Called a *Cup* (retired)
medtop:20001114 (retired) international games (retired) A competition where individuals or teams from different countries may participate. Called *Games* (retired)
medtop:20001115 (retired) national championship (retired) A competition where individuals or teams from one country may participate. Called a *Championship* (retired)
medtop:20001116 (retired) national cup (retired) A competition where individuals or teams from one country may participate. Called a *Cup* (retired)
medtop:20001117 (retired) national games (retired) A competition where individuals or teams from one country may participate. Called *Games* (retired)
medtop:20001342 playoff championship A competitive tournament, often played after the regular season of a sports league by the top competitors to determine the league champion or a similar accolade. Can also apply to an all-in elimination tournament meant to produce a final champion.
medtop:20001118 (retired) regional championship (retired) A competition where individuals or teams from a region of a country may participate. Called a *Championship* (retired)
medtop:20001119 (retired) regional cup (retired) A competition where individuals or teams from a region of a country may participate. Called a *Cup* (retired)
medtop:20001120 (retired) regional games (retired) A competition where individuals or teams from a region of a country may participate. Called *Games* (retired)
medtop:20001341 regular competition A competitive sporting season where teams or individuals contend for a place in the standings or rankings
medtop:20001121 (retired) world championship (retired) A competition where individuals or teams from the five continents may participate. Called *World Championship* (retired)
medtop:20001122 (retired) world cup (retired) A competition where individuals or teams from the five continents may participate. Called *World Cup* (retired)
medtop:20001123 (retired) world games (retired) A competition where individuals or teams from the five continents may participate. Called *World Games* (retired)
medtop:20001124 sport industry Commercial issues related to sport
medtop:20001125 sport organisation Organisations or associations that govern sports
medtop:20001126 sport venue Gymnasiums, stadiums, arenas or facilities where sports events take place
medtop:20001323 sports coaching The staff responsible for the training and on-field management of a sports team
medtop:20001324 sports management and ownership The executive leadership and owners of a sports team
medtop:20001325 sports officiating Referees, umpires and other staff who enforce the rules of a sport from on the field of play
medtop:20001148 sports transaction The transfer of an athlete from one team to another, the hiring or drafting of an athlete onto a team or the change in professional status of a player on a team
medtop:17000000 weather The study, prediction and reporting of meteorological phenomena
medtop:20001128 weather forecast The long- or short-term meteorological prediction and reporting of the upcoming weather for a given region
medtop:20001129 weather phenomena Short- or long-term meteorological phenomena worthy of study, reporting or public advisory such as climate change, storms, heat waves or tornadoes
medtop:20001130 weather statistic Numerical facts about the weather such as temperature, barometric pressure, river levels, humidity or high and low tides
medtop:20001131 weather warning Alerts issued to the public about severe or notable weather in their area