Introduction

This document is designed to familiarise photographers, photo editors and metadata managers with the use of the IPTC Photo Metadata Standard. It provides a short guideline on the use and semantics of each IPTC field (also called metadata property).

The User Guide groups fields according to their category of use:

The Field Reference table lists all IPTC fields with their field labels for easy reference.

The What Is A…​ section explains terms used by the IPTC Standards.

There is a help section on specific topics such as mapping Category Codes to Subject Codes.

Sample images are shown with full examples of metadata to aid in practical metadata entry.

More about this User Guide, including how to contact IPTC and a Copyright Notice, is also available.

What IPTC Photo Metadata is Made For

Photo metadata is key to protecting images' copyright and licensing information online. It is also essential for managing digital assets. Detailed and accurate descriptions about images ensure they can be easily and efficiently retrieved via search, by users or machine-readable code. This results in smoother workflow within organizations, more precise tracking of images, and increased licensing opportunities.

Therefore, photo metadata is critical to photo and related business. IPTC has specified metadata to meet these needs; it is the industry standard of professional photography.

How IPTC Photo Metadata Evolved Over Time

The IPTC - www.iptc.org - is a body of content providers and system vendors from the news industry and has defined standards for metadata about news since 1979. Since the mid 1990’s IPTC metadata are have been quite popular for photos as they were adopted by Adobe Photoshop at this time. The IPTC Photo Metadata Standard defining the Core and Extension metadata schemas is the second generation of IPTC photo metadata.

IPTC’s older standard for metadata, the Information Interchange Model (IIM), was issued in 1991 and defined a set of metadata properties and a data format to embed the metadata values into image files. In the early nineties a subset of this IIM was adopted as the well-known “IPTC Fields” by Adobe Photoshop and can be embedded into JPEG, TIFF and PSD files since then.

In the early 2000s, a new technology for embedding metadata into image files was invented. It is called XMP, was developed by Adobe and is now an ISO standard. This technology required defining new technical specifications for the well-known “IPTC Fields” of the IIM standard and this was done by the IPTC Core schema which was initially released in 2005 and has evolved to version 1.2 since then. A key feature in the transition to IPTC Core in XMP was that the definition of the purpose and the specified use of an IIM field should remain the same, with only the underlying technical details changed. As the IPTC Core is in fact a mirror of the IIM fields it will no longer be extended.

Discussion of IPTC Core raised the need for additional metadata properties not covered by the IIM standard. IPTC created the IPTC Extension schema in 2008. IPTC Extension has been updated twice and is since November 2014 at version 1.2. Any future additions to the IPTC Photo Metadata will be part of the IPTC Extension schema.

After development over two decades IPTC Photo Metadata can be embedded in the following ways:

  • IPTC Core fields can be embedded in the IIM format and/or in the XMP format. A key challenge for metadata embedded in parallel in IIM and XMP is that the values are synchronised - this should be taken care of by the image management software.

  • IPTC Extension fields can be embedded only in XMP format.

To help users, the IPTC collects information from software vendors on their support for IPTC Photo Metadata. Find out more at https://www.iptc.org/photometadata.

Be aware that IPTC Core and IPTC Extension fields can be saved as XMP “sidecar files” for camera Raw files and those file formats which do not support embedded metadata.

Photo Metadata - Under the Hood

Photo metadata has to be processed by software under the hood of panels on your computer screen. See below how this is done.

Photo Metadata Under the Hood

The diagram shows the flow of metadata values from an input panel on your computer screen into an image file and the way back from an image file to their display on the panel.

What you see on your computer screen

On the left, the diagram shows a metadata input panel for IPTC fields in your software, only a few fields are shown here.

Inside imaging software on your computer

In the centre, the diagram shows how your software handles the metadata. The software creates a temporary internal structure to support the data in both IIM (in blue) and XMP (in red) formats.

You can see from the orange arrows that some field values are transferred to both the IIM and the XMP structures (Creator and Description) and others only to the XMP structure (Persons Shown and Digital Source Type). Fields added to the IPTC Photo Metadata specification’s Extension Schema (after 2005) exist only in XMP.

As some fields are replicated in IIM and XMP, the software has to keep these values in synch (dotted lines). This is less an issue for data transferred from the input panel than for data read from an image file.

Inside your JPEG image file

On the right you see the structure of an image file with sections for metadata (headers) and a section for image data (the pixels). The diagram shows that the IIM and XMP data structures are stored in two different headers. In a JPEG file the headers are of type APP1 and APP13 and they may have additional internal identifiers for the metadata formats.

The data structures are embedded into the headers using different technical formats:

  • IIM is a sequence of bytes, where each field has a numeric identifier (2:80 and 2:120)

  • XMP is a single (long) text string using XML as markup language, typically using angle brackets <> as delimiters. Fields are identified by strings like dc:creator.

The green arrows show how data from the internal software structure is embedded in the headers of the image file. If this file is copied to another computer, then exactly this set of embedded bytes takes the metadata to the new location.

Metadata from the image file to your screen panel

Data embedded in the image file can be read by software, so the process also works from right to left on the diagram, as shown by the bi-directional arrows. The software reads from the metadata headers and stores the information in its internal structures. The software has to verify that the IIM and XMP values are the same; if they are not, there are rules about which value should take precedence. At the end of this process IIM and XMP values are the same.

The values are then displayed on the panel on your computer screen and are ready for editing. Pressing Save, sends the data back to the image file for embedding as before.

About the IPTC Photo Metadata User Guide

IPTC Photo Metadata Standard version used by this User Guide

This document is based on the IPTC Photo Metadata Standard specification document released in December 2019 including

  • IPTC Core schema, version 1.2 of 18 June 2014

  • IPTC Extension schema, version 1.5 as of 16 October 2019

The full IPTC specification document can be obtained from https://iptc.org/std/photometadata/specification/IPTC-PhotoMetadata

The referenced PLUS standard specification is available at http://ns.useplus.org/LDF/ldf-XMPReference

For more information about the standards, please visit https://iptc.org/photometadata or http://www.usePLUS.org

Copyright © 2019 IPTC, International Press Telecommunications Council. Rights Reserved.

The IPTC Photo Metadata User Guide document is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 license - see the full license agreement at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

By obtaining, using and/or copying this document, you (the licensee) agree that you have read, understood, and will comply with the terms and conditions of the license.

Materials used in this guide are either in the public domain or are available with the permission of their respective copyright holders. All materials of this IPTC standard covered by copyright shall be licensable at no charge.

Acknowledgements

This document is the result of a team effort by members of the Photo Metadata Working Group of the International Press Telecommunications Council (IPTC), with input and assistance from other contributors.

The User Guide up to this version was edited by (in alphabetical order): Linda Burman (Individual IPTC member), Annette Feldman (AP), Brendan Quinn (IPTC), David Riecks (www.controlledvocabulary.com/PLUS), Sarah Saunders (was CEPIC), Jeff Sedlik (PLUS), Michael Steidl (Honorary IPTC member).

How to contact IPTC

Join the public IPTC Photo Metadata group: https://groups.io/g/iptc-photometadata/

Submit a message on our website: https://iptc.org/about-iptc/contact-us/

Visit IPTC’s website: https://iptc.org/photometadata

Follow IPTC on Twitter: @IPTC

About IPTC

The IPTC, based in London, brings together the world’s leading news agencies, publishers and industry vendors. It develops and promotes efficient technical standards to improve the management and exchange of information between content providers, intermediaries and consumers. The standards enable easy, cost-effective and rapid innovation and include the Photo Metadata standard, the Video Metadata Hub, the news exchange formats NewsML-G2, ninjs, SportsML-G2 and NITF, rNews for marking up online news, the rights expression language RightsML, and NewsCodes taxonomies for categorising news.

IPTC is a not-for-profit membership organisation registered in England - find more about membership.

Business address:

IPTC International Press Telecommunications Council
25 Southampton Buildings
London WC2A 1AL
United Kingdom

Field Reference Table

This section provides a reference of field labels and names in alphabetical order for quick location of specific fields and their guidelines.

Each Label (IPTC Name) is linked to the User Guide section which describes this field. Click on the name and follow.

Labels in bold are not defined by the IPTC Photo Metadata Standard. The Same as IPTC Name column shows the name of the corresponding IPTC field.

The column Schema indicates which IPTC schema the field belongs to.

Label (IPTC Name) Same as IPTC Name Schema

Additional Model Information

Extension

Address {Contact Detail}

Core

Artwork or Object in the Image

Extension

Author

Creator

Author’s Title

Creator’s Job Title

Byline

Creator

Byline’s Title

Creator’s Job Title

Characteristics {Person detail}

Extension

Circa Date Created {Artwork or Object detail}

Extension

City (legacy)

Core

City {Location Created detail}

Extension

City {Location Shown}

Extension

City {Contact detail}

Core

Code of Organisation Featured in the Image

Extension

Content Description {Artwork or Object detail}

Extension

Contribution Description{Artwork or Object detail}

Extension

Copyright Notice

Core

Copyright Notice {Artwork or Object detail}

Extension

Copyright Owner

Extension

Country {Contact detail}

Core

Country Code (legacy)

Core

Country ISO-Code {Location Created detail}

Extension

Country ISO-Code {Location Shown detail}

Extension

Country Name {Location Created detail}

Extension

Country Name {Location Shown detail}

Extension

Country (legacy)

Core

Creator

Core

Creator’s Contact Info

Core

Creator’s Job Title

Core

Creator {Artwork or Object detail}

Extension

Creator ID {Artwork or Object detail}

Extension

Credit Line

Core

Current Copyright Owner ID {Artwork or Object detail}

Extension

Current Copyright Owner Name {Artwork or Object detail}

Extension

Current Licensor ID {Artwork or Object detail}

Extension

Current Licensor Name {Artwork or Object detail}

Extension

CV-Term About Image

Extension

CV-Term CV ID {CV-Term detail}

Extension

CV-Term ID {CV-Term detail}

Extension

CV-Term name {CV-Term detail}

Extension

Date Created {Artwork or Object detail}

Extension

Date Created

Core

Description {Person detail}

Extension

Description {Product detail}

Extension

Description Writer

Core

Description

Core

Digital Image GUID

Extension

Digital Source Type

Extension

Email address(es) {Contact detail}

Core

Embedded Encoded Rights Expression {EERE}

Extension

Encoded Rights Expression {EERE detail}

Extension

Encoding type {EERE detail}

Extension

Encoding type {LERE detail}

Extension

Event

Extension

GTIN {Product detail}

Extension

Genre (generic)

Extension

Headline

Core

Identifier {Person detail}

Extension

Image Creator

Extension

Image Rating

Extension

Image Region

Extension

Image Registry Entry

Extension

Image Supplier

Extension

Image Supplier Image ID

Extension

Instructions

Core

Intellectual Genre

Core

Item Id (Registry Entry)

Extension

Job

Job Id

Job Id

Core

Keywords

Core

Licensor

Extension

Link to Encoded Rights Expression {LERE detail}

Extension

Linked Encoded Rights Expression {LERE}

Extension

Location Created

Extension

Location Identifier {Location Created detail}

Extension

Location Identifier {Location Shown detail}

Location Shown in the Image

Extension

Max Avail Height

Extension

Max Avail Width

Extension

Minor Model Age Disclosure

Extension

Model Age

Extension

Model Release Id

Extension

Model Release Status

Extension

Name {Person detail}

Extension

Name {Product detail}

Extension

Name of Organisation Featured in the Image

Extension

Object Name

Title

Organisation Id {Registry Entry Detail}

Extension

Person Shown in the Image

Extension

Person Shown in the Image with Details

Extension

Phone number(s) {Contact detail}

Core

Physical Description {Artwork or Object detail}

Extension

Postal Code{Contact detail}

Core

Product Shown in the Image

Extension

Property Release Id

Extension

Property Release Status

Extension

Provider

Credit Line

Province or State (legacy)

Core

Province or State {Location Created detail}

Extension

Province or State {Location Shown detail}

Extension

Refined 'about' Relationship of the CV-Term {CV-Term detail}

Extension

Rights Expression Language ID {EERE detail}

Extension

Rights Expression Language ID {LERE detail}

Extension

Rights Usage Terms

Core

Scene Code

Core

Source

Core

Source {Artwork or Object detail}

Extension

Source Inventory Number {Artwork or Object detail}

Extension

Source Inventory URL {Artwork or Object detail}

Extension

Special Instructions

Instructions

State/Province {Contact detail}

Core

Style Period {Artwork or Object detail}

Extension

Subject Code

Core

Sublocation (legacy)

Core

Sublocation {Location Created detail}

Extension

Sublocation {Location Shown detail}

Extension

Title

Core

Title {Artwork or Object detail}

Extension

Transmission Reference

Job Id

Web Statement of Rights

Extension

Web URL(s) {Contact detail}

Core

World Region {Location Created detail}

Extension

World Region {Location Shown detail}

Extension

How to Edit Metadata for …​

This section groups metadata fields according to information type.

General Image Content

A key use of metadata is to describe the content of an image. This can be done in two basic ways:

  • Using standard terms from value lists or controlled vocabularies.

    Choosing terms from a standard list of values enables easier and more consistent search within a single collection or across collections. Controlled vocabularies are one form of value list.

  • Using free-text (natural language)

Read also about metadata for specific content on pages about persons, locations or other things (organisations, events, products, artwork, objects).

Keyword

Enter keywords to describe the visible and abstract content of the photograph. Keywords are in free text form, and may be single or compound terms.

Keywords are descriptive words added to an image to enable search and retrieval. They describe what is visible in the image and concepts associated with the image. Keywords are expressed as a list of terms. Keywords can be single or compound terms.

Values from the controlled vocabulary IPTC Subject Codes should be placed into the “Subject Code” field.

Keywords may have to be separated by commas or other separators depending on the software. The field for each keyword is limited by the IIM format to about 64 characters. In XMP there is effectively no character limit.

IPTC Subject Code

This field can be used to specify and categorise the content of a photograph by using one or more subjects as listed in the IPTC “Subject NewsCodes” taxonomy (available from http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/subjectcode). Each subject term is represented as a code of 8 digits in an unordered list. Only subjects from this controlled vocabulary should be used in this field, free text keywords should be entered into the Keyword field.

CV-Term About the Image

This field structure is a generic way to add one or more terms, themes or named entities to describe the image.

Multiple terms may be used; each term must be taken from an identified Controlled Vocabulary. Terms may be from different Controlled Vocabularies.

This CV field enables users to enter terms about the image from specific controlled vocabularies. Terms from one or more vocabularies may be entered.

The structure is:

CV Term Name

taken from a Controlled Vocabulary

CV Term ID

Unique identifier for the term in the Controlled Vocabulary.

CV ID

Unique identifier for the Controlled Vocabulary (often a URL).

Refined "About"

Optional: globally Unique identifier for a concept refining the ‘about' relationship between the image and the CV term. Example: the concept could stand for emotions shown by persons in the image.

Intellectual Genre

Globally unique identifier for controlled terms to describe the genre of the photo. The IPTC Genre vocabulary may be used http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/genre or other genre vocabularies more focused on photography.

Genre (generic)

This field structure is a generic way to describe the genre of the photo with a value from any Controlled Vocabulary. (The Intellectual Genre actively supports only the use of an IPTC vocabulary.)

Multiple genre terms may be used; each term must be taken from an identified Controlled Vocabulary.

Genre Terms from one or more vocabularies may be entered.

The structure is:

CV Term Name

taken from a Controlled Vocabulary

CV Term ID

Unique identifier for the term in the Controlled Vocabulary.

CV ID

Unique identifier for the Controlled Vocabulary (often a URL).

Refined "About"

Optional: globally Unique identifier for a concept refining the kind of genre CV this term originates from. Example: the used genre CV is providing terms of journalistic genres, product genres, usage genres, etc.

IPTC Scene Code

This field is used to describe the scene of a photo using one or more terms from the IPTC "Scene-NewsCodes". You should only enter values from the IPTC Scene controlled vocabulary (available from http://www.newscodes.org and http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/scene). Each IPTC Scene term is represented as a 6 digit numerical string in an unordered list.

Image Rating

Many professional photo applications have had a image rating feature for some time. These are typically shown as star ratings within a collection and are used to indicate the quality of an image; typically giving one star for entry-level photos, and reserving the higher numbered values for more special or unique images. Assigning a star rating as part of a workflow will make it easier to quickly find, sort, or filter out more valuable images from a grouping at a later point in time.

Photographers may use a method where any ‘keepers' from an assignment are given one star during an initial review. On a second pass they may give a two-star rating to those images deemed superior, or even three stars for those that are outstanding. These values may differ from what an agency or distributor uses, so they may be overwritten or re-evaluated. Some editors recommend that you think of this as a pyramid, with a 10 to 1 ratio between each level. This method will ensure you won’t end up with too many ‘special' photos in a collection.

To make sure you consistently apply the same image rating criteria each time, write down your rationale. Then put this text somewhere you can refer to each time you are editing.

Here is one photographer’s image rating rationale as an example:

  • 0 stars = record shots, or don’t delete immediately (fall back images)

  • * = Entry level threshold achieved (in focus, exposure within reason)

  • ** = Best shot from each scenario or take. (usually 1 or 2 selected for every 10 shots?)

  • *** = Stars of the collection, have or will prep to master files or client selects

  • **** = Show stoppers. These are the "Best in class" or, "cream of the crop"

  • ***** = Reserved for future use…​ (which means it could be used for temporary tagging)

Note that the star rating is done by the user/supplier and there is no universal standard for the rating between systems/collections.

Natural Language Free Text Descriptions

Free-text descriptions provide valuable information about the image in human readable form.

Headline

A headline is a brief synopsis or summary of the contents of the photograph. Like a news story, the Headline should grab attention, and telegraph the content of the image to the audience. Headlines need to be succinct. Leave the supporting narrative for the Description field. Do not, however, confuse the Headline term with the Title term.

This field is limited by the IIM format to about 256 characters. In XMP there is effectively no character limit.

Description/Caption

The Description field, often referred to as a ‘caption' is used to describe the who, what (and possibly where and when) and why of what is happening in the photograph. It can include people’s names, their role in the action, the location. Geographic location details should also be entered in the Location fields. The amount of detail included will depend on the image and whether the image is documentary or conceptual. Typically, editorial images come with complete caption text, while advertising images may not.

This field is limited by the IIM format to about 2000 characters. In XMP there is effectively no character limit.

Persons Depicted in the Image

For a specific person shown in the image several properties can be used:

  • Person shown in the image only - use the field Person Shown

  • If the name, an identifier and a detailed description of the person is to be entered then the field structure Person Shown with Details should be used.

Persons in the image may also be entered in the caption and keyword fields.

There are other fields associated with persons depicted in the image:

  • Additional model info

  • Model Age

  • Minor model age disclosure

  • Model Release Status

  • Model Release Identifiers

Read also about metadata for specific content on pages about general image content, locations or other things (organisations, events, products, artwork, objects).

Person Shown in the Image

Use this field to note the name of a person or persons shown in the image. Typically these would be recorded as they would be typed in a query, first name / last name (given name / surname).

Person Shown in the Image, with Details

Use this field structure to record details about each relevant and recognisable person(s) shown in the image. This might include links to a global online resource which lists the person uniquely with an identifier. There are fields to record physical characteristics and other details to help distinguish this person from others in the image.

These details are useful for identifying and distinguishing this person from others in the image. * Name

+ Use this field to note the name of a person or persons shown in the image. Typically, these would be recorded as they would be typed in a query, first name / last name (given name / surname). * Identifier

+ Use this field to enter one or more Globally Unique Identifier(s) for the person, such as those from WikiData or Freebase. This should be entered in the form of a URI. * Characteristics

+ Use this field structure including CV Term Name, CV Term ID, CV ID and Refined ‘About' for properties or traits of the person by selecting a term from a Controlled Vocabulary (CV). * Description

+ A free-text description of any actions taken, as well as any gestures or emotional expressions shown, by the person shown in the image.

Additional Model Information

The Additional Model Information field can be used to record information about the ethnicity and other facets of the person(s) (“model(s)”) appearing in the image. Use the Model Age field to note the age of model(s).

Model Age

Age of the human model(s) at the time this image was taken in a model released image. If there is more than one model in the image, the ages can be listed in any order.

The user should be aware of any legal implications of providing ages for young models.

Minor Model Age Disclosure

Age of the youngest model pictured in the image, at the time that the image was made. The user should be aware of any legal implications of providing ages for young models.

Model Release Status

This field summarises the availability and scope of model releases authorising usage of the likenesses of persons appearing in the photograph.

There are four possible values: * None (no release is available), * Not Applicable (there are no recognisable people in the image), * Unlimited Model Releases (releases are available for all people in the image, AND the terms of each release authorise unlimited usage of the model(s) likenesses) * Limited or Incomplete Model Releases (there are releases for some of the people in the image, OR one or more of the releases include terms limiting usage of model(s) likenesses).

We recommend that the PLUS controlled value Unlimited Model Releases (MR-UMR) be used sparingly, and encourage you to check the wording of the model release thoroughly before choosing this value.

Model Release Identifier(s)

Use this field for the ID of each available Model Release document. Be sure to give a unique number or name to all releases (both model and property), and record that information in this field. If you don’t already include an ID name/number on your releases, consider adding one as this will make it easier to cross reference.

Locations

The original ‘Location' fields in IPTC (Core) do not distinguish between the location where the image was created and the location shown in the image. The IPTC Location Created and Location Shown field structures were added later to remove this ambiguity.

When populating the Location fields, it is good practice to start with the sublocation which is at the lowest level of the location hierarchy. The wider Location terms define the position of the sublocation.

Read also about metadata for specific content on pages about general image content, persons or other things (organisations, events, products, artwork, objects).

All location field structures use the following geographic hierarchy: Sublocation:: This could be the name of a specific area within a city (Manhattan) or the name of a well-known location (Pyramids of Giza) or a monument or natural feature outside a city (Grand Canyon, Mont Blanc Peak) The area covered by Sublocation may differ for the two types of location. For Location Created, the sublocation might be derived from the Exif GPS coordinates of the camera. In general, the Location Shown should specify the area of interest shown in the image, which is a broader area e.g. The Vosges Mountains.

City

The name of the city or town or nearest human settlement such as village. If there is no data for ‘city', leave the field blank and enter details in sublocation and other fields in the hierarchy.

State/Province

The name of the State or Province or other sub-region of a country. Use of the full name, rather than the abbreviation, is advisable for international audiences.

Country

The name of the country.

Country Code

Country codes are two or three letter upper-case codes as defined by the ISO 3166 standard. The codes are available from: https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/. If both the Country and Country Code fields are used, the Country Code is the authoritative reference. Most photo businesses use the 3 letter code.

World Region

The name of the region of the world.

the location fields are limited by the IIM format to about 32 characters. In XMP there is effectively no character limit.

Location (Original/Legacy)

The legacy Location fields - in most cases shown as sequence of stand-alone fields - are widely understood to express the location shown in the image. They can be used where it is important to display the location values in software which does not read Location Created and Location Shown field structures. Some software applications copy data from the Location fields to the field structure ‘Location Shown.'

Location Created

The location where the image was created.

Use this field structure to specifically record the location where the photo was taken. If the location shown in the image is different from the location where the photo was taken then the IPTC field structure ‘Location Shown in the Image' should be used to note the difference. For example, if you are photographing a mountain with a telephoto lens from a distance, you may be standing on the other side of a state or even country border.

Location Shown in Image

This field structure describes the location shown in the image. Where the subject of the image is in a different location to the camera the values should differ from those in ‘Location Created'.

Other Things Shown in the Image

IPTC supports metadata about typically annotated things in an image: * Organisations * Events covered by the image * Products * Artwork or objects in an image

Read also about metadata for specific content on pages about general image content, persons, locations or other things (organisations, events, products, artwork, objects).

Featured organisations can be described by name and code:

Featured Organisation Name

The name of the organisation or company featured in or associated with the image. For example, an image of people at an event may list the organising or sponsoring company as a featured organisation.

Featured Organisation Code

A code from a known controlled vocabulary for identifying the organisation or company featured in the image. E.g. The stock ticker symbol would list Microsoft as MSFT or Adobe as ADBE. The code is not linked in this field specifically to the Organisation Name in the data structure, but it serves as an additional search term if necessary.

Event

The Event field describes a specific named event associated with the image, e.g. Archimedes press conference, The Great Steamboat Race, Maui Classical Music Festival. Sub events of larger events can be included as in: XXXI Olympic Summer Games (Rio): opening ceremony.

Product

The Product Shown field structure is used to describe one to many products depicted by the image. The name of the product and a textual description can be applied to the corresponding fields. To identify the product a 14 digit GTIN (Global Trade Item Number) of the product should be applied to the GTIN field, GTIN-8 to GTIN-14 codes can be used.

Artwork or Object in the Image

This field structure is used to record information about artworks or other objects in the image, and includes descriptive, administrative and rights information. This category covers paintings, sculptures, objects, and other items of interest for cultural heritage such as archaeological finds.

Title (AO)

The textual title of the work, or reference name. Do not confuse this with the Title field for the image showing this artwork or object.

Content Description (AO)

Free-text description of the content depicted in the artwork or object e.g. View of the Rhine River in Cologne.

Contribution Description (AO)

Contributions made to the artwork or object expressed as free-text. This can include find, restoration, engraving, or any contribution not included under the work ‘Creator'. Include the type, date and location of contribution, and details about the contributor.

Physical Description (AO)

The physical characteristics of the artwork or object as free-text. Object type, materials-techniques and measurements may be described but not content of the artwork or object, for which there is the Content Description field.

Date Created (AO)

The date (and optionally the time) that artworks or objects in the image were created. Please note that historical dates (before about 1900) may be handled differently by different operating systems and/or software versions and the same holds for partial dates such as year only. It may be advisable to also enter dates before that year in the Circa Date Created field. Do not confuse this field value with the Date Created field for the image showing this artwork or object.

Circa Date Created (AO)

A free text field for use where the exact date of creation of the artwork or object is unknown. An approximate date is entered in text rather than date format e.g. ‘ca 1900', ‘19th century'

Style Period (AO)

Free-text field for style, historical or artistic period, movement, group, or school describing the artwork or object.

Creator (AO)

Name of the creator of the artwork or other objects in the image. Where the artist cannot or should not be identified, the name of a company or organisation may be used. Do not confuse this field value with the Creator of the image showing this artwork or object.

Creator ID (AO)

Globally unique identifier for the creator of the artwork or object in the image. For example use an identifier issued by an online registry of persons or companies. Multiple IDs should be entered in the same sequence as the creator names. Do not confuse this field value with the Creator Id of the Image Creator of the image showing this artwork or object.

Source (AO)

Name of the organisation or body that holds or has registered the artwork or object for inventory purposes.

Source Inventory Number (AO)

Inventory number issued by the Source, for example an accession number.

Source Inventory URL (AO)

URL supplied by the Source for the online metadata record.

Copyright Notice (AO)

Copyright notice for claiming the intellectual property for the artwork or object in the image. It should identify the current owner of the copyright and associated intellectual property rights. Do not confuse this field value with the Copyright Notice of the image showing this artwork or object.

Current Copyright Owner Name (AO)

Name of the current owner of the copyright in the artwork or object. Do not confuse this field value with the Name field of the Copyright Owner of the image showing this artwork or object.

Current Copyright Owner ID (AO)

A globally unique identifier for the current copyright owner e.g. issued by an online registry of persons or companies. Do not confuse this field value with the Identifier field of the Copyright Owner of the image showing this artwork or object.

Current Licensor Name (AO)

Name of the current licensor of the artwork or object. Do not confuse this field value with the Name field of the Licensor of the image showing this artwork or object.

Current Licensor ID (AO)

A globally unique identifier for the current licensor e.g. issued by an online registry of persons or companies. Do not confuse this field value with the Identifier field of the Licensor of the image showing this artwork or object.

Rights Information

This section is about how to record rights information for an image.

Read also the page about licensing the use of the image.

The creator of the image as owner of rights can be identified by two properties: Creator:: a free text field for the name of the Creator Image Creator:: a field structure including the name of the Creator and an identifier for the Creator.

IPTC recommends using the older Creator name only field for all images. The newer field structure (Name and ID) should be used in addition to this, when a Creator identifier is available.

Creator data saved in these fields should not be altered over time.

The Image Creator, Copyright Owner, Image Supplier and Licensor may be the same or different entities.

Creator (free text)

Name of the creator of the image. Where the artist cannot or should not be identified, the name of a company or organisation may be use.

This field is limited by the IIM format to about 32 characters. In XMP there is effectively no character limit.
This field is shown in the Image Credits of a photo in the results of a Google image search.

Image Creator (structure)

This property can be used to indicate the creator or creators of the image by name and identifier.

Creator’s Job Title

The job title of the person who created the photograph. For examples this might include titles such as: Staff Photographer, Independent Commercial Photographer, or staff writer. Since this is a qualifier for the Creator field, the Creator field must also be filled out.

this field is limited by the IIM format to about 32 characters. In XMP there is effectively no character limit.

Creator’s Contact Info

The Contact Info fields provide a generic structure for storing contact information for the person or organisation that created this image.

Address (CCI)

The address field is a multi-line field. Enter the street name and number or postbox to which mail should be sent, and a company name or location (building name, floor number) if necessary.

City (CCI)

The name of the city in which the primary contact’s business is located.

State/ Province (CCI)

The State or Province in which the primary contact’s business is located. For clarity, it is best to use the full name rather than the abbreviation.

Postal Code (CCI)

The local postal code (such as ZIP code) in which the primary contact’s business is located.

Country (CCI)

The name of the country (or ISO Country Code) in which the primary contact’s business is located.

Phone(s) (CCI)

The primary contact’s business or work telephone number. Multiple numbers can be given, separated by a comma. Be sure to include the complete international format of a phone number which is: +{countrycode} ({regional code}) {phone number} - {extension if required} e.g. +1 (212) 1234578

Email(s) (CCI)

The primary contact’s business or work email address, such as name@domain.com. Multiple email addresses can be given, separated by a comma.

Website(s) (CCI)

The URL or web address for the primary contact’s business. Multiple addresses can be given, separated by a comma.

The Copyright Notice contains information required to assert copyright in the image and should contain the name of the current copyright holder, whether an individual or a company. The format will differ according to the relevant copyright legislation. It may include the copyright symbol ©, the year of publication, and other commonly used terms such as ‘All Rights Reserved.' If an image is Public Domain, it can be indicated here.

For legal advice on asserting copyright, you should consult a lawyer.

Notes on usage rights (how the image may be used) should be provided in the “Rights Usage Terms” field.

this field is limited by the IIM format to about 128 characters. In XMP there is effectively no character limit.
this field is shown in the Image Credits of a photo in the results of a Google image search.

Indicate the owner or owners of the copyright in the image, using name and identifier. Note that Copyright Owner, Image Creator, Image Source and Licensor may be the same or different entities.

Credit Line

The Credit Line shows how the image should be credited when published, as specified by the supplier of the image. The format varies for different suppliers and may contain: Agency Name, Photographer Name, Rights assertions. E.g. Agency/Photographer; © Photographer; Museum/Artist The Credit Line may contain information also listed in other fields such as Creator, Copyright Notice, Supplier.

In IPTC Core version 1.0 this field was named 'Provider'.
this field is limited by the IIM format to about 32 characters. In XMP there is effectively no character limit.
this field is shown in the Image Credits of a photo in the results of a Google image search.

Source

The Source field is used to name parties with a role in the supply chain, such as agencies, originating organisations, or photographers. The Source field is useful for syndication where the original supplier agency or photographer is different from the end supplier.

before the IPTC Photo Metadata Standard 2014 the semantics of this field were restricted to the original copyright owner of the image.)
this field is limited by the IIM format to about 32 characters. In XMP there is effectively no character limit.

Property Release Status

This field summarises the availability and scope of property releases for the photograph.

There are four possible values:

  • None (no release is available)

  • Not Applicable (there are no items requiring a property release in the image)

  • Unlimited Property Releases (releases are available for all property shown in the image)

  • Limited or Incomplete Property Releases (there are releases for some property shown in the image). We recommend that the PLUS specified value Unlimited Property Releases (PR-UPR) be used with care, and encourage you to check the wording of the property release thoroughly before choosing this value.

Property Release Identifier(s)

Use this field to indicate the ID for each Property Release document. Ensure all releases (both model and property) are assigned a unique number, and record that information in this field.

Read about Model Releases on the page about persons in an image.

Web Statement of Rights

The Web Statement of Rights can be used to link the viewer to a web page (by a URL) which provides a statement of the copyright ownership and usage rights of the image. In the Adobe ‘File Info' panel this field is called the ‘Copyright Info URL.'

Licensing Use of the Image

This section provides fields for information required when licensing an image.

Read also the page about rights information.

Rights Usage Terms

This field is for free-text instructions on how the image may be legally used. E.g. ‘Permission is required from (Supplier or Creator) to publish this image' or ‘Licensed to (Customer) for use in (publication) until (date)'.

For more detailed licensing terms, you may use the PLUS ‘Media Selector', or another standardised vocabulary. This field may also be used to indicate a Creative Commons Licence assigned to the image.

Image Supplier

This field structure identifies the most recent supplier of the image. This may be the copyright owner, creator, or another party in the supply chain, such as an agency or other distributor. This field structure may also be used for parties with a role known as provider.

Image Supplier Name

Name of the image supplier.

Image Supplier ID

The Image Supplier may optionally be identified here by a recognised ID such as the PLUS ID or company URL.

Supplier’s Image ID

The ID assigned to the image by the Image Supplier. Not to be confused with the Image Supplier ID, which identifies the supplier, not the image!

Licensor

This field structure holds contact details for the person or entity authorised to licence the image. It includes Name, Identifier, Phone number, Fax Number, Email address, Web address. Up to 3 licensors may be entered.

Encoded Rights Expressions

A machine readable rights expression may include all or some of the terms and conditions of a licensing agreement. It communicates key information such as permissions, constraints and duties to allow for informed decisions as to how, where and when an image may be distributed to end users.

The Rights Expression may be included in two different ways:

  • by embedding a serialized expression into the image file

  • by a link to a web resource holding the expression

Embedded Encoded Rights Expressions

This structure holds encoded rights expressions. The values are created by software outside the panel, using standardised rights expression languages such as MPEG 21, ODRL or RightsML.

Encoded Rights Expression

Contains a sequence of characters representing the rights expression.

Encoding Type

Contains the encoding type for the rights expression using an IANA Media Type

Rights Expression Language ID

Contains the identifier for the Rights Expression Language used.

Linked Encoded Rights Expressions

This structure holds details of encoded rights expressions referenced by a link.

Link to the Encoded Rights Expression

A URL for a rights expression from a specific Rights Expression Language

Encoding Type

Contains the encoding type of the rights expression using an IANA Media Type.

Rights Expression Language ID

Contains the identifier of the Rights Expression Language used.

Administration and Commissioning Details

Date Created

This field records the date and optionally the time the image was created. This can be derived from the Exif DateTimeOriginal if that is supported by the software.

More about dates and times and different software

Description writer

The name of the person creating or editing the description of the image.

this field is limited by the IIM format to about 32 characters. In XMP there is effectively no character limit.

Title

A short human readable reference for the image. It can be a text reference or a numeric reference, and serves primarily as an identifier. It has been used by photographers for their image filename, though since about 2008 IPTC now provides specific fields for image IDs like Digital Image GUID or Registry Entry (those wishing to, can use the Registry Entry. The Title field should not be confused with the Headline field which is a short descriptive field about the content of an image.

A short human readable reference for the image. It can be a text reference or a numeric reference, and serves primarily as an identifier. The Title field has often been used by photographers for the image filename, but IPTC now provides specific fields for image IDs including the Supplier’s Image ID, The Digital Image GUID, and the Registry Entry fields. The Title field should not be confused with the Headline field which is a short descriptive field about the content of an image, or with the AO Title field which contains the title of the artwork or object in the the image.

this field is limited by the IIM format to about 64 characters. In XMP there is effectively no character limit.

Job Identifier

A number or textual identifier for the job for which the image was supplied. This field can allow job information to be tracked through the workflow.

This field is named ‘Transmission Reference' in the IIM but its use has changed as reflected by this name after the adoption by Adobe Photoshop.
this field is limited by the IIM format to about 32 characters. In XMP there is effectively no character limit.

Instructions

A free text field for instructions to the receiver from the creator or supplier of the image. Instructions can may include details of embargoes, restrictions, or any other rights or technical information needed for the end use. Be aware that there are more specific rights expressions fields (see Rights Information and Licensing sections) which can be used.

Image Registry Entry

A field structure used to describe a registry entry for the image. The record must include identifiers for the registry and the registered item as below:

Registry Organisation Identifier

Globally unique identifier for the registry issuing the ID for the image. The identifier may be textual or numeric and is usually a URL e.g. http://www.plus-id.org

Registry Item Identifier

A unique identifier created and held within the registry identified above.

Role

An identifier of the reason and/or purpose for this Registry Entry. The identifier must be a URL (URI). Examples: major registry of this photo, alternative registry of this photo, national registry of photos, etc.

Max Avail Width/Height

These fields together define the maximum image size in pixel dimensions available from the original image (which may have been downsized).

Digital Source Type

This field indicates the media source from which the digital image was created. The values are taken from a controlled list, available at http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/digitalsourcetype, which includes these values:

  • Original digital capture of a real life scene: born digital images

  • Digitised from a negative on film: from bw or colour negatives

  • Digitised from a positive on film: from slides or transparencies

  • Digitised from a print on non-transparent medium: from photographic prints or flat artworks

  • Created by software: from computer or software generated images including designs, illustrations, and composite images

Digital Image GUID

A globally unique identifier (GUID) for the digital image. The identifier, may be created by technical equipment such as camera or scanner as early as possible in the workflow. The creation of the identifier must comply with the technical requirements for a GUID, and should ideally identify the equipment used. Once entered, the GUID should not be changed.

Image Regions

Introduction

You can use the IPTC Image Region to record details for designated areas within a still photo using rectangles, circles and polygons. You can give each image region a name and an identifier (if desired) and note what type of role (see IPTC’s CV) the region plays and the type of content (see IPTC’s CV) within that region. (The use of both IPTC CVs is recommended but not mandatory.)

There are many times when you need to identify people within an image. This can be difficult especially when all the people don’t line up in nice ‘left-to-right’ rows. The Image Region feature gives you a way to: isolate each person’s face or body in an image (using a rectangle, circle or polygon), give it an identifier and name, indicate that the marked area is a subject area and indicate that the type of content is a human. Finally add the IPTC property Person Shown in Image to the Image Region with the name of the framed person.

If you create photo composites, the IPTC Image Region can be used to identify each of the different entities making up the composite and tie the provider’s name or copyright notice back to each.

Suggestions for how the image could be cropped to accommodate different layouts can now be embedded into the image itself. For example, you could mark a horizontal rectangle within a vertical image and indicate that the role for this marked area is a “landscape format cropping” for that image.

It should be possible to automatically map the face-tagging features in some cameras to the IPTC Image Regions so you would only have to add the name of the person to the regions. In addition, auto-tagging or image recognition systems could create image regions and auto-fill the embedded Image Region metadata fields.

This is a new feature, so it’s quite likely that there are other use cases which haven’t even been thought of yet. Talk to your software developers and ask them to implement this feature, and share with them your ideas for how you intend to use the IPTC Image Regions.

Image Regions - Under the Hood

Read on if you are planning to implement Image Regions into your software, or are simply curious about what needs to happen under the hood to make the IPTC Image Regions feature work properly.

Metadata for one to many image regions can be embedded in the image files. In time, this data should be read automatically and could be transformed into data displaying the shapes of the regions within an HTML page or in special software. These image region boundaries could be shown in a layer over or above the image and should be identified by the color of the boundary or by an identifier shown next to the boundary. Additional details about each image region should be shown in the same page/view—either outside the image (with it identified as a reference) or when hovering the mouse over an image region.

The IPTC Image Region specification allows these various facets of the metadata to be embedded right after having set the boundaries and included details. However, during the lifecycle of an image its size and format may be changed and this requires that the software used to monitor image changes properly understands and updates these Image Region values each time changes are made. For example if you have a horizontal image with four people shown, and set Image Regions around the face of each person; then software used later to crop the image to a square needs to know which people have been removed by cropping and to adjust the coordinates of Image Regions of the persons remaining in the image as well as update/modify the metadata values and embed the values appropriately. If such adjustments are not made the boundaries of Image Regions may appear in the wrong positions and could even be invalid as coordinates may exceed the current width or height of an image.

If images are cropped or resized and if the coordinates of the boundary of an Image Region are not adjusted it is very likely that they no longer frame the intended region. Therefore, if an Image Region asserts to be about a male person and the boundary touches or encompasses a female person one can assume that the image region is no longer valid. The CIPA Standard DC-008 Exif metadata tag ‘SubjectArea’ can be mapped to an IPTC Image Region (see the Note about that), in this case the data of the Exif SubjectArea must also be adjusted.

As IPTC Image Regions employ and rely upon coordinates expressed by relative size values or pixel count, Image Region metadata is vulnerable to corruption (rendering the metadata inaccurate) should any of the following changes occur:

  • Cropping (if the Point Zero of the coordinates is changed, all x- and y-axis values must be adjusted and any Image Region no longer part of the image must be removed)

  • Resampling (if using a pixel count for coordinates when expressing width, height and radius of an Image Region these values must follow the resampling ratio. If these metadata fields are expressed using relative size values no adjustment is required)

  • Resizing (if using a pixel count for coordinates when expressing width, height and radius of an Image Region these values must follow the scale of resizing. If these metadata fields are expressed using relative size values no adjustment is required)

  • Rotating (if the Orientation Tag is used, no change of Image Region data is required)

If images are changed in artistic actions like resizing width and height differently or ‘stirring’ the pixels with an artistic filter IPTC recommends to remove the Image Regions as it may be very hard or impossible to adjust the boundary of Image Regions and the goal for the image may have changed from providing facts to providing artistic work.

In addition, if Image Region metadata has been applied to a composite image (an image made up of two or more images), then Image Region metadata is vulnerable to corruption (rendering the metadata inaccurate) should any of the following changes occur to the various elements:

  • Adding additional elements in a composite image

  • Removing elements in a composite image

  • Shifting position/location of elements in a composite image

  • Resizing portions of a composite image

  • Adding or removing borders

The IPTC invites and encourages developers to create solutions designed to allow IPTC Image Regions to survive image alterations. At the time of this feature release no such solutions are available. In the interim the IPTC recommends that users exercise caution in relying upon the IPTC Image Regions to identify or express metadata regarding people, objects or other subject matter appearing in a photograph, as this data may be inaccurate.

In particular, to mitigate legal liability, IPTC recommends that users exercise extreme caution if/when using the IPTC Image Regions to express rights-related information pertaining to any element/s of a photograph (such as copyright, property rights or model release information).

Guide for mapping Exif SubjectArea to IPTC Image Region

Introduction

The CIPA Standard DC-008 Exif and the IPTC Photo Metadata Standard are widely used specification for metadata embedded into image files. Exif sets a focus on facts about and technical details of a picture taken by a camera while IPTC sets a focus on descriptive, administrative and rights related metadata of an image edited in a next step of the workflow. Even with these different scopes of metadata four metadata fields of both standards have highly similar semantics since many years:

  • The date and time when the picture was taken

  • The name of the person taking the photo

  • A description of what the photo shows

  • A statement about copyright

  • A mapping of these Exif metadata and IPTC metadata fields is implemented by software vendors since about 20 years.

The IPTC Photo Metadata Standard 2019.1 introduces the Image Region property with a use case similar to the Exif property SubjectArea field. This paper explains how to map data from an Exif Subject Area to the IPTC Image Region.

About this section

This section about mapping Exif SubjectArea to IPTC Image Region was created by IPTC and its content was reviewed by CIPA.

It refers to the copyrighted standard documents of CIPA and IPTC:

Mapping Guideline

Exif SubjectArea specification

(This is an overview of the Exif specification, please read the specification document about the SubjectArea field in full.)

The specification defines these details of a SubjectArea (37396, 0x9214) field/tag among others:

  • Semantic definition: The tag indicates the location and area of the main subject in the overall scene.

  • Values: 2 or 3 or 4 SHORT values. A SHORT value is a 16-bit (2-byte) unsigned integer. All the values are measured in pixels.

The Exif specification defines further that the shape of the area is set by the count of values:

  • 2 values: the x- and the y-coordinate of a single point

  • 3 values: the x- and the y-coordinate of the centre of a circle and its diameter

  • 4 values: the x- and the y-coordinate of the centre of a rectangle and its width and height.

IPTC Image Region specification

(This is an overview of the IPTC Photo Metadata specification, please read the specification document about the Image Region in full.)

The specification defines these details of a single Image Region among others (multiple regions may be used):

  • The boundary of the region, it includes:

    • A setting of the shape of the region by a value from the enumeration “rectangle”, “circle” and “polygon”

    • A setting of the measuring unit by a value from the enumeration “pixel” or “relative”.

    • For the rectangle shape: an x- and a y-coordinate of the upper left corner of the rectangle and its width and height

    • For the circle shape: an x- and a y-coordinate of the centre of the circle and its radius measured along the x-axis.

    • For the polygon shape: a sequence of x- and y-coordinates for each vertice of the polygon. The count of vertices starts at 1 for a single point, 2 vertices define a line.

  • The type of the content of the region. The value is an globally unique identifier of a term expressing the type, e.g. “Person”, “Animal”, “Building”, “Artwork”, etc. (IPTC works on a vocabulary of such terms.)

  • The role of the region, among other regions. The value is an globally unique identifier of a term expressing the role, e.g. “recommended cropping”, “entity”, or “subject area”.

  • Further an identifier and a name of the region. The scope of identifier and name is only local to the image.

Mapping Exif SubjectArea → IPTC Image Region

Point zero of the coordinates is defined in the same way for the Exif SubjectArea and for the IPTC Image region: the upper left corner of the pixels of an image, no rotation/orientation processing is applied.

For an Exif Subject area an IPTC Image Region structure must be created. This structure includes:

  • An Image Region structure with values mapped as shown in the table below.

  • The Measuring Unit value “pixel” is mandatory as the Exif specification builds on pixels only.

  • The Region Role property may show the value for “main subject area”, defined by the identifier http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/imageregionrole/mainSubjectArea.

  • No other Image Region properties are required by the mapping. A local identifier and name may be applied as needed by the user.

The table below describes how Exif SubjectArea metadata should be transformed to IPTC Image Region metadata.

Exif SubjectArea field value Image Region Boundary property and its value Processing instruction

Shape: single point, 2 values

Boundary Shape = “polygon”

This value is mandatory

Measuring Unit = “pixel”

This value is mandatory

SubjecArea 1st value

→ Polygon Vertices, 1st vertex: X-Axis Coordinate

Use the Exif value

SubjecArea 2nd value

→ Polygon Vertices, 1st vertex: Y-Axis Coordinate

Use the Exif value

Shape: circle, 3 values

Boundary Shape = “circle”

This value is mandatory

Measuring Unit = “pixel”

This value is mandatory

SubjectArea 1st value

→ X-Axis Coordinate

Use the Exif value

SubjectArea 2nd value

→ Y-Axis Coordinate

Use the Exif value

SubjectArea 3rd value

→ Circle Radius

SubjectArea 3rd value divided by 2, rounded as integer

Shape: rectangle, 4 values

Boundary Shape = “rectangle”

This value is mandatory

Measuring Unit = “pixel”

This value is mandatory

SubjectArea 1st value

→ X-Axis Coordinate

SubjectArea 1st value minus (SubjectArea 3rd value divided by 2, rounded as integer)

SubjectArea 2nd value

→ Y-Axis Coordinate

SubjectArea 2nd value minus (SubjectArea 4th value divided by 2, rounded as integer)

SubjectArea 3rd value

→ Rectangle Width

Use the Exif value

SubjectArea 4th value

→ Rectangle Height

Use the Exif value

What is a …​ (help)

What is a Field / Field Structure / Property?

Data about an image - the metadata - can be expressed in a single field, or in a field structure.

Single field

One value is sufficient to express the desired information. Examples: Date Created, Description, Copyright Notice

Field structure

Multiple values are used to express different facets of the information. Example: Facets such as city, province or state, country and world region are used to pinpoint a specific Location and remove any ambiguity.

A metadata property is the generic term for a field or field structure used as defined particle of metadata.

What is a Value List / Controlled Vocabulary?

The value of a photo metadata field can be selected and applied in two basic ways:

Free (text) value

The person editing a field can type in anything appropriate, no formal limitations or limitations in available values apply. Typical examples are the Description, the Headline or the Copyright Notice fields.

Already defined value

The person editing a field can only select one or more out of many already defined values. Such a set of values is called a value list or in the case of a specific authority managing this list a controlled vocabulary. Typical examples are the Country Code, the Subject Code, or the Digital Source Type fields. Actually also date fields can be considered as picking a value from a predefined list.

What is an ISO Country Code?

The International Standards Organisation - ISO, www.iso.org - defines among many other standards also codes representing country names as ISO 3166 standard. In the IPTC Country Code field country names can be presented by a two-letter, a three-letter, but not the numeric code defined by ISO.

A full list of currently defined country names in English and French can be obtained from https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/. Note that the codes of country names not existing anymore, e.g. Czechoslovakia or Yugoslavia, are not shown on this list.

What is a Model or Property Release?

For many assets its owner has the right to decide if a picture of it may be published or not.

A Model Release is a document granting the right to use an image of a person depicted. The law on the rights of people shown in images varies in different countries, but use of a model release is essential in some fields of photography, and the release should detail the scope of the intended use.

A Property Release is a documents granting the right to use an image of an object depicted, mainly used for images of buildings and interiors.

For legal advice on both types of releases, you should consult a lawyer.

What is IIM?

IIM stands for Information Interchange Model. An IPTC metadata standard created in 1991 which defines a rich set of metadata properties and a format for embedding values into binary files. A subset of the properties was adopted by Adobe for the File Info panels of Photoshop and other software. Find more about it at www.iptc.org/IIM

What is PLUS?

The Picture License Universal System (PLUS) is a rich set of metadata for expressing usage rights and licenses for images. Find more about it at http://www.useplus.org. The IPTC Photo Metadata Standard has adopted some of them, e.g. Image Creator, Copyright Owner or Licensor.

Note about identifiers of PLUS' entity properties: it is advised to use there globally unique identifiers issued by publicly accessible organisations or registries. Only if no such identifier is available a simple text string may be used.

What is XMP?

XMP stands for Extensible Metadata Platform. Created by Adobe Systems Inc. in 2001 as data format for metadata fields. The data can be embedded into binary files or be saved as external sidecar files. XMP as such does not define any metadata properties/fields, they are defined by special schemas which make use of XMP. Some of these schemas are maintained by Adobe, many others by other standardisation bodies like the IPTC. Find more about XMP at http://www.adobe.com/products/xmp/

Help on Specific Topics

This section provides views with more details on topics which were mentioned in the generic part of the user guide.

IPTC is often asked which fields should be filled out as a minimum.

IPTC has selected the following set of properties as a guide to the minimum requirement:

  • Description/Caption

  • Creator/Image Creator*

  • Copyright Owner* + Copyright Notice

  • Credit line

  • Date Created - in many cases present at least as Exif value

*) For these properties also use an identifier if available.

By defining this set of minimal metadata properties IPTC does not support any removal of existing metadata outside this set without the explicit permission of the copyright owner of the image. (In simple words: this is not a permission to strip off metadata and is not legal advice.)

Fundamental Guidelines for the Preservation of Embedded Metadata

The IPTC endorses and strongly recommends adherence to the five guiding principles of the "Embedded Metadata Manifesto":

  1. Metadata is essential to describe, identify and track digital media and should be applied to all media items which are exchanged as files or by other means such as data streams.

    All people handling digital media need to recognise the crucial role of metadata for business. This involves more than just sticking labels on a media item. The knowledge required to describe the content comprehensively and concisely and the clear assertion of intellectual ownership increase the value of the asset. Adding metadata to media items is an imperative for each and every professional workflow.

  2. Media file formats should provide the means to embed metadata in ways that can be read and handled by different software systems.

    Exchanging media items is still done to a large extent by transmitting files containing the media content and in many cases this is the only (technical) way of communicating between the supplier and the consumer. To support the exchange of metadata with content it is a business requirement that file formats embed metadata within the digital file. Other methods like sidecar files are potentially exposed to metadata loss.

  3. Metadata fields, their semantics (including labels on the user interface) and values, should not be changed across metadata formats.

    The type of content information carried in a metadata field, and the values assigned, should not depend on the technology used to embed metadata into a file. If multiple technologies are available for embedding the same field the software vendors must guarantee that the values are synchronised across the technologies without causing a loss of data or ambiguity.

  4. Copyright management information metadata must never be removed from the files.

    Information identifying the image, the creator, the owner and associated rights is the only way to save digital content from being considered orphaned work. Removal of such metadata impacts on the ability to assert ownership rights and is therefore forbidden by law in many countries.

  5. Other metadata should only be removed from files by agreement with their copyright holders.

    Properly selected and applied metadata fields add value to media assets. For most collections of digital media content descriptive metadata is essential for retrieval and for understanding. Removing this valuable information devalues the asset.

Dates and times and different software

The way dates are displayed is dependent on software and on computer operating system settings.

The XMP specification allows the following date entries, though not all software products reflect and support this.

  • year only (if the month and day are unclear)

  • year and month only (if the day is unclear)

  • full date

  • full date with time, including time zone.

Time and time zone information are not obligatory, but if a time value is added, time zone should also be recorded. If no time zone is added, the software should supply a default value.

Exif currently does not hold time zone information in its time stamp. A time zone must be entered when importing Exif time information into an XMP field. Most software will apply the local time zone of the receiving computer system, so this should be checked if the image was created in a different time zone.

Metadata values shown multiple times

Some values may appear multiple times within software panels or tabs. This data is stored in only one location in the image file, but appears in the tabs for different schemas which use it as a ‘shared property'.

For example, in Adobe products data entered in the IPTC Creator field also appears in the Author field in the Description Panel. If a change is made to the data in any tab or panel, that change is replicated in the other locations.

IPTC Photo Metadata and Google Images

Google has introduced a new feature of their “image search” mode in 2018. When an image is shown, one can click on “Image Credits” and a popup will show the image’s creator, credit line and a copyright notice. It works by reading the corresponding embedded IPTC photo metadata fields from the image file. The name of the creator, the copyright notices and the credit line is shown.

IPTC is taking the opportunity to show the best way that each metadata field can be filled in based on the definitions in the standard.

What fields to use, and what to put in them

Google displays three IPTC photo metadata fields, wherever available, for an image shown as search result. This tells the viewer who is the creator and who is the copyright holder of the image and what credit line should be shown next to the image. This information is taken from the IPTC photo metadata embedded in the image file.

Creator

For displaying the creator of the image, the Creator field is read and shown with the label Creator. Google first reads the ISO XMP dc:creator field, and if that is empty, then the IPTC IIM 2:80 Creator field. Your editing tool probably just gives you a single field labelled “creator” so just use that and you won’t have to worry.

By its definition this field contains “the name of the photographer, but in cases where the photographer should not be identified the name of a company or organisation may be appropriate.”

Copyright Notice

Google displays the Copyright Notice field (XMP dc:rights or IIM 2:116 Copyright Notice). So while you’re tidying up your image metadata it makes sense to get this right too. The definition for this field is: “Contains any necessary copyright notice for claiming the intellectual property for artwork or an object in the image and should identify the current owner of the copyright of this work with associated intellectual property rights.” The format can differ according to the relevant copyright legislation of different countries. Again, Google first reads the ISO XMP dc:rights field, and if that is empty, then the IPTC IIM 2.116 Copyright notice field.

Credit Line

The Credit Line field (XMP photoshop:Credit or IIM 2:110 Credit) is used as “the credit to person(s) and/or organisation(s) required by the supplier of the image to be used when published.” Generally this would be a line of text that the supplier expects users of the image (such as Google Images) to display to users alongside the image. Again, Google first reads the ISO XMP photoshop:credit field, and if that is empty, then the IPTC IIM 2.110 Credit field.

Most tools label this field as “Credit Line” in the editing interface, but some tools call it simply “Credit”.

For photo creators and editors: how to edit the metadata fields

It’s important to understand that IPTC Photo Metadata is actually embedded in the image binary file. You can’t add HTML tags or schema.org markup to add this metadata. But never fear - there are some tools you can use to edit the fields.

We maintain a list of tools for editing IPTC Photo Metadata. Here are a few of the major tools we cover there:

  • Adobe Photoshop and Adobe Lightroom

  • Photographer tools such as FotoStation, PhotoMechanic, ACDSee Pro and the Digital Asset Management system Extensis Portfolio

  • For the more technical, the command-line ExifTool can be run in a script to update many images at the same time.

Each of these tools will allow you to edit fields a slightly different way. Usually there is some kind of “properties panel” or “metadata window” that lets you view and edit all embedded metadata fields.

For developers and site administrators: how to ensure the fields are preserved in images on your site

Your site’s digital asset management system, content management system, image management system or content delivery network may be stripping out embedded metadata fields. Some systems do this with the best of intentions, thinking that it will save a few bytes of bandwidth, but stripping out metadata actually infringes on the copyright holders' rights and may even be illegal in some countries.

You should use a DAM and CMS that respects and conserves IPTC and XMP embedded metadata, and ensure that any configuration options that strip out metadata are turned off. Also you may need to look at image cropping and manipulation plugins for your CMS - for example the ImageMagick WordPress library retains embedded metadata, but some others strip it out.

Guideline for mapping Category Codes to Subject NewsCodes

Early versions of IIM included the Datasets 2:15 “Category” and 2:20 “Supplemental Category”. But these two fields were replaced in IIM version 4 (released in 1999) by the Dataset 2:12 “Subject Reference” which must be populated by values from the IPTC Subject NewsCodes controlled vocabulary. In version 4 of the IIM specification document the Datasets Category and Supplemental Category were indicated as “deprecated” which meant that after the time of this release these two Datasets should not be populated with values any longer.

To support the move from the three letter codes used with the Category Dataset to the Subject NewsCodes this table provides a reference for mapping.

Category Code Subject NewsCode Name and definition of the code

ACE

01000000

arts, culture and entertainment
Matters pertaining to the advancement and refinement of the human mind, of interests, skills, tastes and emotions

CLJ

02000000

crime, law and justice
Establishment and/or statement of the rules of behaviour in society, the enforcement of these rules, breaches of the rules and the punishment of offenders. Organisations and bodies involved in these activities.

DIS

03000000

disaster and accident
Man-made and natural events resulting in loss of life or injury to living creatures and/or damage to inanimate objects or property.

FIN

04000000

economy, business and finance
All matters concerning the planning, production and exchange of wealth.

EDU

05000000

education
All aspects of furthering knowledge of human individuals from birth to death.

EVN

06000000

environmental issue
All aspects of protection, damage, and condition of the ecosystem of the planet earth and its surroundings.

HTH

07000000

health
All aspects pertaining to the physical and mental welfare of human beings.

HUM

08000000

human interest
Lighter items about individuals, groups, animals or objects.

LAB

09000000

labour
Social aspects, organisations, rules and conditions affecting the employment of human effort for the generation of wealth or provision of services and the economic support of the unemployed.

LIF

10000000

lifestyle and leisure
Activities undertaken for pleasure, relaxation or recreation outside paid employment, including eating and travel.

POL

11000000

politics
Local, regional, national and international exercise of power, or struggle for power, and the relationships between governing bodies and states.

REL

12000000

religion and belief
All aspects of human existence involving theology, philosophy, ethics and spirituality.

SCI

13000000

science and technology
All aspects pertaining to human understanding of nature and the physical world and the development and application of this knowledge

SOI

14000000

social issue
Aspects of the behaviour of humans affecting the quality of life.

SPO

15000000

sport
Competitive exercise involving physical effort. Organisations and bodies involved in these activities.

WAR

16000000

unrest, conflicts and war
Acts of socially or politically motivated protest and/or violence.

WEA

17000000

weather
The study, reporting and prediction of meteorological phenomena.

IPTC recommendation for metadata about composite images

Definition: a composite image is an image that is made from multiple images.

IPTC is asked how metadata about the different images the final image is made of could be expressed in a way which strictly links a metadata value to one of the source images.

IPTC recommends this procedure:

  1. Create a thumbnail of the final image and draw lines along the edges between the different photos it was made of. Then apply a number to each region representing a photo.

  2. Assign numbers to the images making the composite photo: start at the left upper corner of the composite picture, go from left to right and from top to bottom. As soon as you encounter pixels from “another” image assign the next number from a sequence starting with 1. If the same source image is used for multiple regions of the composite image then apply the same number to all of them.

  3. Make this thumbnail available on the web. Add the URL of this thumbnail to the Instructions field: the added string should be “composite reference http://…​.”.

    The rule for finding this link is: parse the Instructions field, any URL right after the words “composite reference” is the link to this thumbnail.

  4. Prefix metadata about such a part-image with the assigned number of the reference thumbnail in square brackets. E.g. [1] …. [2] …. Metadata about the whole composite image should be prefixed with [0]

Example for the Creator field: [0] Giorgio Tintoretto [1] John Hopper [2] Pierre Monet [3] Franz Haas

IIM Metadata deprecated in IPTC Core

Some of the IIM metadata properties adopted by Adobe for the Photoshop File Info have not been carried forward into the IPTC Core schema. Data in these deprecated fields remains in the IIM header of the image, but will not be shown in IPTC Core compliant software.

The following fields from the IIM schema are deprecated in the IPTC Core schema, but are synchronised with XMP properties, and available for future use, but outside the IPTC Core.

Urgency

is used for distribution management and is synchronised with the XMP property ‘photoshop:Urgency'

Category and Supplemental Category

were deprecated and merged to form the later Subject Newscodes. See the this guideline for mapping Category Codes to the newer Subject Newscodes.

These two properties are synchronised with XMP properties ‘photoshop:Category' and ‘photoshop:SupplementalCategories'.

How to Use Metadata Examples

These examples provide entries for most of the IPTC Core and Extension fields for three uses cases, see the list below.

These are examples of use of metadata and are not prescriptive. In-house rules for use of metadata differ, but we would like to encourage metadata use in line with IPTC semantics.

A landmark image - by an independent photographer

Example landmark image

Example photo provided by and © David Riecks

(Fields listed in alphabetical order - see also Field Reference Table)

Field Name Field Value

City

Nainital

Copyright Notice

© 1985 David Riecks, All Rights Reserved

Copyright Owner

Copyright Owner Name

David Riecks

Copyright Owner Identifier

http://plus-id.org/riecks

Country ISO-Code

IN

Country

India

Creator

David Riecks

Creator’s Contact Info

Address

2701 W Washington

City

Champaign

State/Province

Illinois

Postal Code

61822

Country

USA

Phone(s)

+1 (217) 6661376

Email(s)

infor@riecks.com

Website(s)

www.riecks.com

Creator’s Jobtitle

Photographer

Credit Line

©1985 David Riecks: www.riecks.com

Date Created

1985-11-25

Description writer

David Riecks

Description

Southern Himalayan Mountains, from Snow Peak, Nainital, Uttarakhand, India longitude: 79.444542 latitude: 29.39805

Digital Source Type

Original digital capture of a real life scene

Event

Featured Organisation (code)

Featured Organisation (name)

Headline

Southern Himalayan Mountains

Image Creator

Image Creator Identifier

http://plus-id.org/riecks

Image Creator name

David Riecks

Image Supplier

Image Supplier ID

http://plus-id.org/riecks

Image Supplier Name

David Riecks

Image Suppliers Image ID

Instructions

Original RAW capture Nikon D2X, Adobe RGB 1998.

Intellectual genre

Feature

IPTC Scene

0011000 (general view)

Job ID

Sacred India

Keywords

environment, ecology, ecosystem, environmentalism, scenery, nature, land, mountains, mount, Himalayans, sky, skies, cloud, clouds, concepts, concept, conceptual, summit, peak, weather, snow, snowing, snowfall, outdoors, outdoor, outside

Licensor

Licensor Name

David Riecks

Licensor Identifier

http://plus-id.org/riecks

Licensor Telephone 1

+1 (217) 6661376

Licensor Telephone 2

Licensor Email address

info@riecks.com

Licensor Web address

http://www.riecks.com/

Location Created

Sublocation

Snow Peak, Nainital

City

State/Province

Uttarakhand

Country Name

India

Country Code

IN

World Region

Asia

Location Shown

Sublocation

Nanda Devi, Nainital

City

State/Province

Uttarakhand

Country Name

India

Country Code

IN

World Region

Asia

Max available Height

3800

Max. available Width

5600

Person Shown

Property Release Identifier

Property Release Status

Not Applicable

Registry Entry

Registry organisation ID

http://www.plus-id.org

Registry image ID

Z07-3M7-9JJ-834

Rights Usage Terms

Licensed to Big Larch Publishing, For Placement on Any Interior Page in Traveling India Today book, all other rights reserved.

Source

David Riecks Photography

State/Province

Uttarakhand

Subject Code

06006005 (mountains)

Sublocation

Snow Peak

Title

drpin075402

A documentary image - by a staff photographer

Example documentary image

Example photo provided by ©David Riecks

(Fields listed in alphabetical order - see also Field Reference Table)

Field Name Field Value

Additional Model Info

Caption/Description writer

Susan Brown

Caption/Description

After digging the furrows another ten yards with the tractor, Jim Moore hops off to hand-set more leeks and onions.

City

Watseka

Copyright Notice

©2007 Big Newspaper, all rights reserved

Copyright Owner Name

Copyright Owner Name

Big Newspaper Group

Copyright Owner Identifier

http://www.bignewspapergroup.com/

Country

United States of America

Creator

John Doe

Creator’s Contact Info

Address

Big Newspaper, 123 Main Street

City

Boston

State/Province

Massachusetts

Postal Code

02134

Country

USA

Phone(s)

+1 (890) 1234567

Email(s)

johndoe@bignewspaper.com

Website(s)

www.bignewspaper.com

Creator’s Jobtitle

Staff photographer

Credit Line

John Doe / Big Newspaper

Date Created

2007-04-19

Digital Source Type

Original digital capture of a real life scene

Event

Featured Organisation (code)

Featured Organisation (name)

Prairieland Community Sponsored Agriculture

Headline

Farmer planting onions

Image Creator name

Image Creator Identifier

http://plus-id.org/99-G5-H2W

Image Creator name

John Doe

Image Supplier Name

Image Supplier ID

http://plus-id.org/77-B5-H2W

Image Supplier Name

Big Newspaper Group

Image Suppliers Image ID

bng01661gda

Instructions

Newspapers Out, Original Artixscan 4000 of color negative file, 160 ISO (frame 35a) is 7.6 x 11.2 at 500ppi, in Colormatch RGB.

Intellectual genre

Profile

IPTC Scene

011900 (action)

ISO Country Code

USA

Job ID

CSA farms

Keywords

agriculture, farm laborer, farmer, field hand, field worker, humans, occupation, people, agricultural, agronomy, crops, onions, vegetable crops, plants, vegetables, outdoors, outside, agricultural equipment, tractor, gender, male, men

Licensor

Licensor Name

Big Newspaper Group

Licensor Identifier

http://plus-id.org/99-G5-H2W

Licensor Telephone 1

+1 (800) 1234567

Licensor Telephone 2

Licensor Email address

info@bignewspaper.com

Licensor Web address

http://www.bignewspapergroup.com/

Location Created

Sublocation

Moore family farm

City

Watseka

State/Province

Illinois

Country Name

United States of America

Country Code

USA

World Region

North America

Location Shown

Sublocation

Moore family farm

City

Watseka

State/Province

Illinois

Country Name

United States of America

Country Code

USA

World Region

North America

Max available Height

3800

Max. available Width

5600

Model Age Disclosure

Age 25 or Over

Model Age

Model Release Identifier

Bng20070419jd

Model Release Status

Limited or Incomplete Model Releases

Person Shown

Jim Moore

Property Release Identifier

Bng20070420jd

Property Release Status

Limited or Incomplete Property Releases

Registry organisation ID

Registry organisation ID

http://www.plus-id.org

Registry image ID

B01-9C8-7EC-65F

Rights Usage Terms

For consideration only, no reproduction without prior permission

Source

Big Newspaper

State/Province

Illinois

Subject Code

04001000, 04001001

Sublocation

Moore family farm

Title

01661gdx

A heritage artwork image - by an agency photographer

Example heritage artwork image

Example photo provided by ©David Riecks

(Fields listed in alphabetical order - see also Field Reference Table)

Field Name Field Value

Additional Model Info

Artwork/Object in the image

Title

Abraham Lincoln

Date Created

1920

Creator

Daniel Chester French

Source

National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior

Source Inventory Number

Copyright Notice

Public Domain

City

Washington

Copyright Notice

© 2009 Julie Doe / Mugwum Press, all rights reserved

Copyright Owner

Copyright Owner Name

Mugwum Press

Copyright Owner Identifier

http://plus-id.org/mugwum

Country ISO-Code

USA

Country

United States of America

Creator Contact Info

Address

Mugwum Press, 123 Broadway

City

New York

State/Province

New York

Postal Code

10006

Country

USA

Phone(s)

+1 (877) 9876543

Email(s)

j.doe@mugwum.com

Website(s)

www.mugwum.com

Creator

Julie Doe

Creator’s Jobtitle

Mugwum contract photographer

Credit Line

Mugwum Press

Date Created

2009-06-24

Description writer

Jacques Brown

Description

This statue of the 16th President of the United States depicts a 19 foot high seated Abraham Lincoln in contemplation inside the Lincoln Memorial. It was carved of Georgia white marble by the Piccirilli Brothers under the supervision of the sculptor, Daniel Chester French and took four years to create, and completed in 1920.

Digital Source Type

Original digital capture of a real life scene

Event

Featured Organisation (code)

Featured Organisation (name)

Headline

Lincoln Memorial

Image Creator

Image Creator Identifier

http://plus-id.org/mugwum

Image Creator name

Julie Doe

Image Supplier

Image Supplier ID

http://www.plus-id.org/mugwum

Image Supplier Name

Mugwum Press

Image Suppliers Image ID

G18-7U8-4DB-23Y

Instructions

Newsmagazines Out

Intellectual genre

Feature

IPTC Scene

010100, 011700 (headshot, Interior view)

Job ID

Honest Abe

Keywords

North America, United States of America, America, U.S., United States, US, USA, Washington DC, District of Columbia, Washington D.C., Lincoln Memorial, environment, ecology, ecosystem, environmentalism, scenery, nature, land, monument, morning, seasons, Summer, summertime, sky, skies, sun, sunlight, art, fine art, artistry, sculpture, statuary, statue, stone sculpture

Licensor

Licensor Name

Mugwum Press

Licensor Identifier

http://plus-id.org/mugwum

Licensor Telephone 1

+1.877.646.5375

Licensor Telephone 2

Licensor Email address

Licensing@mugwum.com

Licensor Web address

http://plus-id.org/mugwum

Location Created

Sublocation

Lincoln Memorial

City

Washington

State/Province

District of Columbia

Country Name

United States of America

Country Code

USA

World Region

North America

Location Shown

Sublocation

Lincoln Memorial

City

Washington

State/Province

District of Columbia

Country Name

United States of America

Country Code

USA

World Region

North America

Max available Height

2868

Max. available Width

4312

Person Shown

Property Release Identifier

Property Release Status

Limited or Incomplete Property Releases

Registry Entry

Registry organisation ID

http://www.plus-id.org

Registry image ID

C03-7D7-5EF-66H

Rights Usage Terms

Image to be used One-time only, non-exclusive use in English Language Edition Magazine as inside image, to be used no larger than a full page in color. Additional third party rights to be negotiated with Julie Doe / Mugwum Press in advance. All other rights are reserved except those specifically granted.

Source

Julie Doe / Mugwum Press

State/Province

District of Columbia

Subject Code

01002000, 01015001, 08005005 (architecture, sculpture, memorial)

Sublocation

Lincoln Memorial

Title

drp2091169d

Example museum painting image

(Fields listed in alphabetical order - see also Field Reference Table)

Field Name Field Value

Artwork Or Object

[1] Circa Date Created

c.1680

[1] Copyright Notice

Photo Credit: St Edmundsbury Museums

[1] Creator(s)

Beale, Mary, 1633-1699

[1] Date Created

1680

[1] Physical Description

oil on vellum; 14 x 9 cm

[1] Source

St Edmundsbury Museums

[1] Source’s Inventory No

1997.40.4

[1] Source’s Inventory URL

http://www.artuk.org/artworks/portrait-of-a-girl-with-a-cat-10550

[1] Title

Portrait of a Girl with a Cat

Copyright Notice

Copyright information and licence terms for this image can be found on the Art UK website at http://www.artuk.org/artworks/10550

Copyright Owner

[1] Copyright Owner Name

Photo Credit: St Edmundsbury Museums

Credit Line

Photo Credit: St Edmundsbury Museums

Description

Beale, Mary; Portrait of a Girl with a Cat; St Edmundsbury Museums; http://www.artuk.org/artworks/portrait-of-a-girl-with-a-cat-10550

Headline

Beale, Mary, 1633-1699; Portrait of a Girl with a Cat

Image Supplier

[1] Image Creator Name

www.artuk.org

Image Supplier’s Image ID

SFK_SED_MA_1997_40_4

Instructions

This metadata was embedded in the image on 20th February 2016

Title

Portrait of a Girl with a Cat

Usage Terms

Copyright information and licence terms for this image can be found on the Art UK website at http://www.artuk.org/artworks/10550

Image of a sculpture - by a museum

Example museum sculpture image

(Fields listed in alphabetical order - see also Field Reference Table)

Field Name Field Value

Artwork Or Object

[1] Content Description

Upper part of limestone figure of Hera or Aphrodite; right arm and legs lost.

[1] Contribution Description

Excavated/Findspot: Larnaka; Donated by Henry Christy

[1] Physical Description

Limestone sculpture; Height: 27.5 centimetres (max)

[1] Source

British Museum

[1] Source’s Inventory No

1852.0609.56

[1] Style Period

Hellenistic

[1] Title

Figure

Copyright Notice

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0)

Description

Figure; Hellenistic; Limestone sculpture; Height: 27.5 centimetres (max) ;Excavated/Findspot: Larnaka; Donated by Henry Christy; British Museum; 1852.0609.56; Upper part of limestone figure of Hera or Aphrodite; right arm and legs lost.

Headline

Figure

Keyword

Hellenistic,Woman,Upper Torso,Hera,Aphrodite

Usage Terms

For uses not covered under the Creative Commons license, or to license high-resolution versions of the images for commercial uses, contact the British Museum’s image service at bmimages.com.

User Guide History

(Latest entry at the top of the list)

21 August 2019

Converted to Asciidoc format and lightly edited for style.

5 March 2019

Guidelines about the display of IPTC rights fields in the Google image search results added. Some URLs updated.

20 November 2017

New properties Genre (generic), Image Rating and Web Statement of Rights added. Covers the Photo Metadata Standard up to Core version 1.2 and Extension version 1.4.

18 October 2016

First public version after a complete rework. Covers the Photo Metadata Standard up to Core version 1.2 and Extension version 1.2.