NewsML™ is a media-independent news exchange format for general news.
News exchange is a method of moving around not only the core news content, but also data that describe the content in an abstract way (i.e. metadata), information about how to handle news in an appropriate way (i.e.news management data), information about the packaging of news information, and finally information about the technical transfer itself.
The major building blocks
The IPTC identified two major required data structures to convey "anything which relates to news":
- The news content: this is volatile information reporting about what has just happened, providing a preview on what one can expect to happen and corresponding background information. This information is presented in different journalistic styles - genres - and by different media-types like text (articles), photo, graphics, audio or video.
For all these variants of news content NewsML-G2 provides a single data structure: the News Item.
- "Worth-to-remember"-information: news refer to existing information actually each news item as news are about events, persons, locations, or themes. To provide a comprehensive set of newsworthy information it is required to convey information which is worth to be remembered - and referred to - along with the news content.
For many different kinds of "worth-to-remember"-information NewsML-G2 provides a single data structure: the Concept Item.
As the news items and the concept items do not exist only as stand-alone items but primarily in clusters of information NewsML-G2 provides two structures to convey a set of such items:
- The Package Item is made to convey a structured set of items. It is not only a simple wrapper for news or concepts but has a feature to structure information like by a table of contents: a package can have groups of items and the groups itself can have sub-groups. And each group can have references to multiple items and reference can be named like "Top news rank 1", "Top news rank 2" ... etc.
- The Knowledge Item is a container for many concepts, acting like an encyclopaedia. This way a small, medium size or even large set of concepts can be distributed to receivers of news item to provide basic knowledge about all the terms the news items refer to.
The Conformance Levels
Different conformance levels are defined in the model, each of them related to a level of complexity (at the conceptual and processing level) of the related Items. This feature adds modularity to the model.
The current model defines two conformance levels named “core conformance level” (CCL) and “power conformance level” (PCL). The core conformance level is focused on simplicity and interoperability. The power conformance level is a superset of the core conformance level which gives more flexibility to providers who choose it, but the recipient processors are more complex to program to comply with PCL and interoperability is lower than for CCL as not all recipients will implement the power level.
A compliant processor must therefore assert supporting either “core” or “power” functionality.
As the “power” features are only an extension of the “core” features, a “core” compliant processor SHOULD process “power” Items by simply ignoring the information pertaining to the “power” level.
A short history of NewsML-G2
The initial version of NewsML, version 1.0, was approved in October 2000. Since then it went along with minor revisions: version 1.1 was approved in October 2002; version 1.2 was approved in October 2003.
In 2004, the user-experience with NewsML was evaluated, and it was decided to create a consistent set of complementary standards as a comprehensive and interoperable way to move all types of data between media systems in order to make news exchange efficient and reliable. This set of standards is now the IPTC family of G2-Standards, and NewsML-G2 is a member of it.
The family of IPTC G2-Standards is built on a common structural and function framework called the IPTC News Architecture (NAR). For this reason many components of NewsML-G2 are common with other members of the G2-Standards, like e.g. EventsML-G2.
To better understand the terminology used in the G2-Standards specifications we recommend the Glossary as a reference, as it provides an extensive set of terms and their definitions.
Version 2.12 was published in November 2012.
See the Specification and Documentation tabs in the navigation bar on the top of this page to download the latest files.